Outline Lecture 4 - Cells - Chapter 4 - Instructor outline.docx

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1Module 2 - Lesson 3Cells – Chapter 4Cell Biology – the study of individual cells and their interactionswith each other.Cell Theory – “every organism originates from another cell1.All living organisms are composed of oneor morecells.2.Cells are the smallestunits of life.3.New cells only come from pre-existingcells by cell division.I.MicroscopyA.Tools to observe cells1. Microscopesa. Light microscope – utilizes light for illuminationb. Electron microscope – uses a beam of electrons; cannotbe used to view livingcells1.)Scanning electron microscope – used to view the surfaceof a sample.Creates a3- dimensionalimage2.)Transmission electron microscope - Provides a crosssectionalview of a celland its organellesII.Overview of Cell StructureA.Cell Structure is determined by 4 factors1. Matter – atoms, molecules, macromolecules2. Energy – needed to produce molecules and macromolecules and carry out manycellular functions3. Organization – all cells have the ability to build and maintain their internalorganization4. Information – cell structure requires instructions which come from the genome.The genes contain the information to produces cells with particular structuresand functions.B.Classifications of Cells1. Prokaryotic cells - have simple structure; lacka membrane enclosed nucleusa. Domains – Archaea, Bacteriab. Composition1) Plasma membrane - a double layer of phospholipids2) Cytoplasm – contained within the plasma membrane3) Nucleoid region – location DNA4) Ribosomes – polypeptide synthesis5) Cell wall – support and protects the plasma membrane6) Capsule – (aka. Glycocalyx) protection against animal immune defense7) Pili – allows cells to attach to surfaces8) Flagella – provides motility2. Eukaryotic cells – compartmentalized.Contain a nucleus and other organellesenclosedwithin membranes.a. Domain – Eukaryab. KingdomsProtista – single-celled organisms. Eukaryotic cells that are not Fungi, Plants, orAnimals.1).Fungi2).Plantae
23).Animaliac. Organelles – cellular compartmentalizationallows a cell to carry out specializedchemical reactions in different places1) Structure of an animal cell – pg. 81 of text2) Structure of a plant cell – pg. 82 of text3.Features common to all cellsa.DNA – hereditary materialb.Ribosomes – site of polypeptide synthesisc.Plasma membrane– controls what substances enter and exit the cell..d.Proteome– the complete protein composition of a cell or organism.4. Structures found only in Animal cellsa. Lysosomesb. Centriolesc. Contractile vacuolesd. Flagella5. Structures found only in Plant cellsa. Cell wallb. Chloroplasts(Chromoplasts, Leucoplasts)c. Central vacuolesd. Plasmodesmata6. Cell Sizes and Shapesa. Bacterial cells – 1-10 µm (micrometers) in diameterb. Eukaryotic cells – 10-100 µm in diameter1.)Small cells allow a large surface to volume ratioIII.The Cytosol

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Term
Fall
Professor
Chitra Sundaram

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