Final – 3 hrs, 2 Qs (one Q will be set in historical time where you have to respond to with the laws and issues of that time)
1 hr for historical question and 2 for the modern question – try to get inside the issue, don’t just skim issues
one question set in some past year: transport yourself to the time period in the question.
You cannot know the future.
You will know, however,
all then-existing law and events, and any trends that you think relevant.
If the exam is set in 1880, you can know the future only in the way that
you now know the future from the vantage point of 2005.
give advice about probable future outcomes.
just turn a switch in your mind and take yourself back to the year in which the question is set.
Who got rich in the W – very early hardrock miners; mining corporations and shareholders (there were big mining
corporations by 1880s-discoveries made individually and then bought out by companies); RRs and shareholders;
some large ranch spreads that were put together (some by fraud, but not all)
Indian and Early American Views of Nature, Property, Government, and Population
‚Rebecca Tsosie, Tribal Environmental Policy in an Era of Self-Determination
‚The Great New Wilderness Debate (1998);
‚Worcester v. Georgia (1832);
‚Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (1982)
‚Thomas Robert Malthus, F
‚Ronald Bailey, E
Indian views of nature:
Homocentric – standing outside the natural world – How most whites and Europeans see/saw it
Bio-centric – being a part of the natural world – How Indians see it
Indian People did not worship the land, they respected the land, felt themselves equal to it. A sacred site is not a place that
is worshiped, it is a place where Indian person will worship the creator. There was no idea of property rights, but
they did have tribe or family or clan rights to certain plots to farm or fishing holes, rights to whales on beach and
a family’s rights to parts of the whale, etc.
These are more use rights rather than property rights as we think of
Today the tribal counsels are governments and they manage the lands, they own 57 million acres in the country
Lakota people see themselves as
of universe, comparable to a pebble
Wakan Tanka = Great Spirit: controls maj animistic forces Iyan, the Rock; Maka, the Earth; Skan, the
Sky; and Wi, the Sun
Indigenous understatnding of relationship btwn man and natural evni – humans are part, not above nature
Care more about
important events happen and less about
Western understanding stems from Christianity, capitalism, and technology “nature as commodity,” “wilderness
to be tamed,” “to be exploited”
Standing Bear (Souix):
all things in natural community (rocks, trees, animals) are kin – everything had rights, even