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hw1 - AnanthVenkateswaran Assignment1 CSCI109 1 ....

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Ananth Venkateswaran Assignment 1 CSCI 109 1. Indirection is the means of using a reference point other than the value itself such as  through referring to the memory address. Encoding is the process of converting  information from a particular source into characters or symbols. One common aspect  these two concepts have is that they both provide an easily readable means for  instructions in the computer to be carried out. They are different in that one simply  provides a reference while the other requires a conversion process. 2. NOT:  The NOT gate is basically an inverter. Whenever the input is 0, the output will be  1 and vice versa. A NOR gate outputs 1 or is only true when both inputs are 0. Therefore, these two gates are nearly the same. The change that is then required is that the instead of two inputs as per usual for the NOR gate, it should be constrained to one input.  NOT(x) = NOR(x,x) OR:  The OR gate is basically the exact opposite of the NOR gate. Therefore, an inversion of the NOR gate is necessary. By adding a second NOR gate to the first, we obtain an  inverted NOR gate which attains the state of an OR gate. OR(x,y) = NOR(NOR(x,y), NOR(x,y)) AND:  The AND gate is only true when both inputs are also true or are equivalent to 1. In  order to get the NOR gate into this state, it is necessary to only change the first and last  inputs. The inputs 00 should output 0 instead of 1 and the inputs 11 should input 1 instead of 0. To do this, there should be two one-input NOR gates feeding into a two-input NOR  gate. This would result in an AND gate. AND(x,y) = NOR(NOR(x,x), NOR(y,y)) XOR:  The exclusive OR gate is nearly the same as the OR gate, but outputs 0 or false  when the inputs are 11. Therefore, the first three outputs need to be changed from the  NOR gate. 00 should be equivalent to 1 and the 10/01 combination of inputs should equal
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