Unformatted text preview: most Americans think that race doesn’t matterthat discrimination and prejudice are no longer important issues
researchers use implicit measures to reveal racial biases
researchers suggest that in American society, blacks have lower status than whites, we see white people on top
webster driskell tested idea using an experiment where participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and one third of the participants had a black partner, another third had a black partner and also received info telling them that their partner was better at the task, the final third thought their partner was white
Lovaglia and his colleagues argue that when individuals are low status, they will do less well when they are in situatios where they have to prove they can perform
Lovaglia created high and low status in the lab
african Americans score lower that Americans on many test of mental ability
the term intelligence or mental ability refer to an individual’s capacity to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn, to reason, to solve problems, and to overcome obstacles by thinking about them
debate over whether heredity or environment is more important in determination of intelligence has produced good empirical research
recent study comes down in favor of heredityminnesota study of twins reared apart found that socres correlated .7 while scores of monozygotic twins reared apart correlated .8
adoption studies support both nature and nurture
one conclusions is that adopted children raised in the same family may be about as different from
one another as children randomly selected from the population
other studies compare the IQs of children living in ….
proponents of genetic determinism interpret the results of the Minnesota study to mean that heredity is responsible for 70% of differences in intellectual ability, and environment 30%
pygmalion is the classic literary example of the processprofessor henry Higgins expectations of student transform herself fulfilling prophesy
in Rosenthatl and Jacobson’s original study of the Pygmalion effect in the classroom, self esteem and self efficacy are thought to improve performance by increasing the persistence with which individuals approach tasks and by reducing anxiety about possible failure
two elements of the status process work to the advantage of high status individuals and the diadvantage of low status indisivuals who take mental ability tests
Arroyo and Zigler showed that for African Americans attitudes condictive to high acadenic achievement were associated with introjective depression and especially with concerns about losing the approval of others
Rubovits and maehr conducted a follow up to the Pygmalion study that compared teachers reactions to African American and European American studentsafrican Americans thought to be gifted were criticized the most and given the least attention
Fordham and Ogbu suggest that African Americans grow up with double message about intellectual achievementwork twice as hard to get half as far and keep your head down do not stand out
with left hand right hand experiment, used Raven Progressive Matrices test Unit 5.1
1. Why do researchers use measures like the IAT? Researchers use measures like the IAT so that they can get at attitudes and beliefs that might be socially sensitive
2.What is true of our implicit biases and our conscious racial attitudes? We can consciously behave in ways that are inconsistent with our implicit biases.
3.Are your implicit racial preferences consistent with your conscious beliefs? yes
4.Do you think your implicit racial preferences may come out (without you intending it) in things you do or say? yes
5. Did your results surprise you? no
6.Are your implicit racial beliefs consistent with your conscious actions? yes
1. What data support the theory that people make assumptions about competence based on race? Experiment participants pay less attention to suggestions by blacks than by whites, but they pay more attention when they learn that the black partner is competent.
2. According to status researchers, how do people treat individuals they view as less competent? People are less likely to pay attention to that individual’s ideas and they see that individual as less
3. How did Webster and Driskell know that the partner’s race affected the individual’s decisions? Because the only thing that differed across the experimental conditions was the race of the partner.
4. According to status researchers, why would the race of a car buyer affect how good a deal he gets? Race is an indicator of status. People with low status are seen as less deserving and therefore get inferior deals.
5. According to status researchers, people believe racial stereotypes and those beliefs cannot be changed. False
1.How did Lovaglia and his colleagues make handedness a status characteristic? Lovaglia and his colleagues give some experiment participants information that people who were righthanded would have a very difficult time completing the experimental task; and gave other participants information that righthanders would be very good at the experimental task.
2. In Lovaglia’s experiment, what happened to subjects who were told that, because of their handedness, they would not be good at the experimental task (and therefore would take home less
money)? They scored lower on an IQ test
3. What does random assignment do? It helps us be more confident that the experimental manipulation (and not some characteristic of the participant) is responsible for the outcome.
4. How did Lovaglia decide which participants would get what kind of information? He randomly
assigned participants to one of the two experimental conditions.
5. What did Lovaglia and his colleagues find? People who were randomly assigned to a low
status position got lower scores on an IQ test than people who were randomly assigned to a high
t only goes to 5.5 so heres the last section 5.5
1.Children in the low status condition treated old friends differently than they normally did. true
2. The class exercise had longterm effects on children’s grades. true
3. Jane Elliott’s experience shows that adults don’t experience discrimination in the same way that children do; therefore her exercise did not work. False
4. What happened when Jane Elliott tried her exercise with adults? The adults in the lowstatus position became frustrated.
5. In the documentary “A Class Divided,” what happened to the blueeyed children on the day that they were told that they were inferior to the browneyed children? Their test scores went down.
oops heres 5.4 too! 5.4
1. in the documentary “A Class Divided,” how did the children treat each other during Jane Elliott’s exercise? There were conflicts between the children with blue and brown eyes that had not been there before.
2. What did Jane Elliott do to teach the children in her classroom about discrimination? One day she told the class that blueeyed people were inferior and on the other day she told them that browneyed people were inferior.
3. If you lived in New Orleans, which of the following inclass exercises would best accomplish Jane Elliott’s goal? Randomly assign kids to wear one color neckband or the other. Then assign one color neckband to be the inferior group.
Integration: situation in which individuals of different social categories interact freely with each other
Race: a social category based on descent
Segregation: A situation in which individuals of different social
categories (different races, religions, etc.) do not mix—they
tend to live with, marry, work with, and be friends with people
in their same category. This situation may be legally
mandated (as in the U.S. South during slavery, or South
Africa during apartheid) or may be due to other causes.
Status: social position in the hierarchy of a group based on
the prestige, honor, and deference that one receives
Status characteristics: features of individuals that influence
beliefs about their competence ...
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