Unit 5 sociology - importantissues ,,weseewhite peopleontop websterdriske

Unit 5 sociology - importantissues ,,weseewhite peopleontop...

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Unformatted text preview: ­most Americans think that race doesn’t matter­that discrimination and prejudice are no longer important issues ­researchers use implicit measures to reveal racial biases ­researchers suggest that in American society, blacks have lower status than whites, we see white people on top ­webster driskell tested idea using an experiment where participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and one third of the participants had a black partner, another third had a black partner and also received info telling them that their partner was better at the task, the final third thought their partner was white ­Lovaglia and his colleagues argue that when individuals are low status, they will do less well when they are in situatios where they have to prove they can perform ­Lovaglia created high and low status in the lab ­african Americans score lower that Americans on many test of mental ability ­the term intelligence or mental ability refer to an individual’s capacity to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn, to reason, to solve problems, and to overcome obstacles by thinking about them ­debate over whether heredity or environment is more important in determination of intelligence has produced good empirical research ­recent study comes down in favor of heredity­minnesota study of twins reared apart found that socres correlated .7 while scores of monozygotic twins reared apart correlated .8 ­adoption studies support both nature and nurture ­one conclusions is that adopted children raised in the same family may be about as different from one another as children randomly selected from the population ­other studies compare the IQs of children living in …. ­proponents of genetic determinism interpret the results of the Minnesota study to mean that heredity is responsible for 70% of differences in intellectual ability, and environment 30% ­pygmalion is the classic literary example of the process­professor henry Higgins expectations of student transform her­self fulfilling prophesy ­in Rosenthatl and Jacobson’s original study of the Pygmalion effect in the classroom, ­self esteem and self efficacy are thought to improve performance by increasing the persistence with which individuals approach tasks and by reducing anxiety about possible failure ­two elements of the status process work to the advantage of high status individuals and the diadvantage of low status indisivuals who take mental ability tests ­Arroyo and Zigler showed that for African Americans attitudes condictive to high acadenic achievement were associated with introjective depression and especially with concerns about losing the approval of others ­Rubovits and maehr conducted a follow up to the Pygmalion study that compared teachers reactions to African American and European American students­african Americans thought to be gifted were criticized the most and given the least attention ­Fordham and Ogbu suggest that African Americans grow up with double message about intellectual achievement­work twice as hard to get half as far and keep your head down do not stand out ­with left hand right hand experiment, used Raven Progressive Matrices test Unit 5.1 1. Why do researchers use measures like the IAT? Researchers use measures like the IAT so that they can get at attitudes and beliefs that might be socially sensitive 2.What is true of our implicit biases and our conscious racial attitudes? We can consciously behave in ways that are inconsistent with our implicit biases. 3.Are your implicit racial preferences consistent with your conscious beliefs? yes 4.Do you think your implicit racial preferences may come out (without you intending it) in things you do or say? yes 5. Did your results surprise you? no 6.Are your implicit racial beliefs consistent with your conscious actions? yes 5.2 1. What data support the theory that people make assumptions about competence based on race? Experiment participants pay less attention to suggestions by blacks than by whites, but they pay more attention when they learn that the black partner is competent. 2. According to status researchers, how do people treat individuals they view as less competent? People are less likely to pay attention to that individual’s ideas and they see that individual as less deserving 3. How did Webster and Driskell know that the partner’s race affected the individual’s decisions? Because the only thing that differed across the experimental conditions was the race of the partner. 4. According to status researchers, why would the race of a car buyer affect how good a deal he gets? Race is an indicator of status. People with low status are seen as less deserving and therefore get inferior deals. 5. According to status researchers, people believe racial stereotypes and those beliefs cannot be changed. False 5.3 1.How did Lovaglia and his colleagues make handedness a status characteristic? Lovaglia and his colleagues give some experiment participants information that people who were right­handed would have a very difficult time completing the experimental task; and gave other participants information that right­handers would be very good at the experimental task. 2. In Lovaglia’s experiment, what happened to subjects who were told that, because of their handedness, they would not be good at the experimental task (and therefore would take home less money)? They scored lower on an IQ test 3. What does random assignment do? It helps us be more confident that the experimental manipulation (and not some characteristic of the participant) is responsible for the outcome. 4. How did Lovaglia decide which participants would get what kind of information? He randomly assigned participants to one of the two experimental conditions. 5. What did Lovaglia and his colleagues find? People who were randomly assigned to a low­ status position got lower scores on an IQ test than people who were randomly assigned to a high­ status position. t only goes to 5.5 so heres the last section 5.5 1.Children in the low status condition treated old friends differently than they normally did. true 2. The class exercise had long­term effects on children’s grades. true 3. Jane Elliott’s experience shows that adults don’t experience discrimination in the same way that children do; therefore her exercise did not work. False 4. What happened when Jane Elliott tried her exercise with adults? The adults in the low­status position became frustrated. 5. In the documentary “A Class Divided,” what happened to the blue­eyed children on the day that they were told that they were inferior to the brown­eyed children? Their test scores went down. Simone Machmiller oops heres 5.4 too! 5.4 1. in the documentary “A Class Divided,” how did the children treat each other during Jane Elliott’s exercise? There were conflicts between the children with blue and brown eyes that had not been there before. 2. What did Jane Elliott do to teach the children in her classroom about discrimination? One day she told the class that blue­eyed people were inferior and on the other day she told them that brown­eyed people were inferior. 3. If you lived in New Orleans, which of the following in­class exercises would best accomplish Jane Elliott’s goal? Randomly assign kids to wear one color neckband or the other. Then assign one color neckband to be the inferior group. Integration: situation in which individuals of different social categories interact freely with each other Race: a social category based on descent Segregation: A situation in which individuals of different social categories (different races, religions, etc.) do not mix—they tend to live with, marry, work with, and be friends with people in their same category. This situation may be legally mandated (as in the U.S. South during slavery, or South Africa during apartheid) or may be due to other causes. Status: social position in the hierarchy of a group based on the prestige, honor, and deference that one receives Status characteristics: features of individuals that influence beliefs about their competence ...
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