Masterclass 1.docx - Masterclass 1 Humeu2019s definition...

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Masterclass 1 Hume’s definition of causality has two parts: 1. The effect occurs immediately after the cause. 2. If the cause had not occurred the effect would not have been observed. [Counterfactual thinking] For Mill, causes are complex, not just one object or event. He provides ideas and methods as an attempt to find necessary [if and ONLY if that condition occurs, the effect will occur] and sufficient [if that condition occurs, the effect will occur] conditions for an effect to occur. David Lewis proposes that we only take into account the second part of Hume's definition of causality: the counterfactual. Judea Pearl provides the analogy of the "causation ladder" with three rugs: observation, action and imagination. In the observation rug, we can only establish that events or variables are correlated. The second rug refers to interventions in reality (e.g., taking an aspirin); in this level we can establish causal relationship between variables. The third level is the counterfactual level. If we have knowledge

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