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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at:Molecular Biology, Brief History and principles of genetic materialPresentation· March 2020DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15835.11048CITATIONS0READS1881 author:Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:Computer Science Department of IMAView projectGlobal socio-economic consequences of the Covid-19 pandemicView projectBareq N. Al-NuaimiMadenat Al-Elem University College (MAUC)32PUBLICATIONS2CITATIONSSEE PROFILEAll content following this page was uploaded byBareq N. Al-Nuaimion 22 March 2020.The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
1M.Sc. Bareq Nihad
2Genetic material must contain complex information.First and foremost, the genetic material must be capable of storing large amounts of informationinstructions for all the traits and functions of an organism. This information must have the capacity tovary, because different species and even individual members of a species differ in their genetic makeup.At the same time, the genetic material must be stable, because most alterations to the geneticinstructions (mutations) are likely to be detrimental.Genetic material must replicate faithfully.A second necessary feature is that genetic material must have the capacity to be copied accurately.Every organism begins life as a single cell, which must undergo billions of cell divisions to produce acomplex, multicellular creature like you. At each cell division, the genetic instructions must betransmitted to descendent cells with great accuracy. When organisms reproduce and pass genes to theirprogeny, the coding instructions must be copied with fidelity.Genetic material must encode phenotype. The genetic material (the genotype) must have the capacityto “codefor” (determine) traits (the phenotype). The product ofa gene is often a protein; so there mustbe a mechanism for genetic instructions to be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.Experimental Proof of the Genetic Function of DNAAn important first step was taken byFrederick Griffith in 1928when he demonstrated that a physicaltrait can be passed from one cell to another. He was working with two strains of the bacteriumStreptococcus pneumoniaeidentified asSandR. When a bacterial cell is grown on solid medium, itundergoes repeated cell divisions to form a visible clump of cells called a colony. The S type of S.

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