Intro to Am. Gov Chapter 3 – Notes

Intro to Am. Gov Chapter 3 – Notes - Chapter3Notes...

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Chapter 3 – Notes  Federalism: - The Framers worked to create a political system that was halfway between the  failed confederation of the Articles of Confederation and the tyrannical unitary  system of Great Britain. - The three major arguments for federalism are: o The  prevention of tyranny ; o The provision for  increased participation in politics ; o And the use of the  states as testing grounds  or laboratories for new  policies and programs - Federalism was at the center of the controversy concerning the Affordable Care  Act, as 26 states sued the federal government over the health care reform law. - When the Supreme Court heard arguments in the case in 2012, groups on both  sides of the issue demonstrated outside the Court. Origins of the Federal System: - Under the Articles, the U.S. was governed by a  confederation. - National government derives power from states o Led to weak national government o Framers remedied problems with a federal system - Federal system   o U.S. was the first country to adopt a federal system of government o The national government and state governments derive all authority from  the people. o Different from  unitary system The local and regional governments derive all authority from a  strong national government. Federalism in the Constitution: Federalism:  A system in which the national government shares power with lower levels  of government. - The United States Constitution divides power between the federal and state  governments. - Federalism is distinct from a unitary system where all the power resides within  the national government. In federalism, both the states and the federal government are sovereign.
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- Why Federalism: o The original states already existed at the time of the Revolution. o The states created the federal government, not the other way around. o The former colonists distrusted strong, central governments. - Federalism allowed the 13 former colonies to unite in useful and efficient ways,  such as creating one military body, having a common currency and coherent trade policy, while still keeping (at the time) most other functions local. - The Constitution grants two types of powers to federal government:  expressed  and  implied . o Expressed powers  (17 of them) are found in Article I, Section 8 of the  Constitution. o Implied powers  are found at the end of Section 8, which grants Congress  the right “To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for  carrying into Execution” the expressed powers - Article VI  also says that the laws of Congress shall be “the supreme Law of the  Land.” - Known as the  “supremacy clause,”
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