Officially started in 1337 when Philip VI confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine.
Edward III perceived this as a violation of the Treaty of Paris
(signed in 1259).
Edward also proclaimed that since he was the eldest descendant of the former monarch Philip the Fair, and should be the
monarch of France (basically rejecting the French barons' decision that he was not a part of the French monarchy).
The war was fought
almost entirely in France geographically, but also played out in everyday life.
Sermons by clergy were adjusted to be more patriotic,
propaganda was abundant in the written word of both countries.
Early on the English dominated with their longbows and cannons, though the
French later rallied around a young peasant girl, Joan of Arc, who single-handedly saved the French monarchy.
The English later bought her
from the Burgundians (their allies), tried her for witchcraft, and burned her at the stake.
The war, coupled with the outbreak of the plague,
resulted in a tremendous loss of life in Europe, along with the destruction of the French countryside. On the positive side, representation and
democracy became more prevalent during the war as Edward III realized he would need money from the people to finance the war, and they
used this influence to have a greater say in the government.
In 1208, Pope Innocent III called for a crusade against the Albigensians, a heretical sect in southern France.
The Albigensians rejected
orthodox doctrine on the relationship of God and man, the sacraments, and clerical hierarchy.
Fearing civil disorder due to religious division,
the French monarchy joined in this crusade.
The Albingensians suffered a savage defeat to the French under Count Simon de Montfort at
Muret in 1213.
This, coupled with other crusades against various emperors and groups, led to the damaging of papal credibility, as they
clearly did not sponsor peace as they claimed to.
Byzantine emperor who, in 1092, appealed to western Europe for help defending Constantinople and the Byzantine empire from the Turks,