History ID Terms - Final - Humanism Humanism was an...

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Humanism Petrarch The Prince Machiavelli War of the Roses Taille Ferdinand and Isabella Babylonian Captivity Sale of Indulgences Humanism was an intellectual movement during the Renaissance in Europe. Though it was really founded by Petrarch (1304-1374), the movement didn't really catch a lot of steam in the late 1400s. The humanist movement was founded in the "rebirth" of classical learning and thinking, as Petrarch put it. Humanist studies focused on grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy, and was the main intellectual movement of the Renaissance. Humanists usually emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities. Humanists typically believed in the practical education of males, the study of classics for moral and intellectual discipline, as well as to discover the different aspects of human nature. (1304-1374) Considered by many to be the father of the Renaissance. Petrarch pushed for the rebirth of high civilization based on classical models. He considered the Romans to be the pinnacle of human society and that only by reflecting on what the Romans had achieved could the society moved forward. He described the 1000 year period between this new interest in learning and Roman society as the Dark "Middle" Age. Unlike philosophers in the Middle Ages, Petrarch tried to interpret the things he learned in terms of the world and human nature, rather than relating everything back to God. Though a devout Christian he tended to view history and society in more of a secular light. The Prince was a political treatise written by Machiavelli in 1513. The Prince focuses on political power and how it rulers should gain, maintain, and increase it. In the Prince, Machiavelli concludes the human beings are selfish by nature and will do anything to advance their interests, leading him to suggest that rulers manipulate their people by any means necessary. As a work of political theory, it suggested that rulers need to be cunning and that they should not be concerned with an ideal society, but be concerned about the society at hand. The sole test of a "good" government is whether it works or not. Due to the pessimistic humanistic views put forth in the Prince, Machiavellian has come to be a synonym for politically devious, corrupt and crafty. (1469-1527) Machiavelli was an early political theorist who suggested ways for rulers to successfully rule their kingdom. Machiavelli was more of a pessimistic humanist, many called him a realist, and suggested that by nature humans are very selfish. In 1513, he wrote The Prince, in which he put forth most of his ideas. He stressed that a ruler needs to be cunning and should manipulate his population by any means necessary to accomplish what needs to be accomplished. He also did not believe that rulers should worry about ideal societies and should focus instead on the society at hand. The only measure of a "good" government is by whether it works. The two main ideas that display Machiavelli's
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 141 taught by Professor Crowston during the Spring '06 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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History ID Terms - Final - Humanism Humanism was an...

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