War of the Roses
Ferdinand and Isabella
Sale of Indulgences
Humanism was an intellectual movement during the Renaissance in Europe.
Though it was really
founded by Petrarch (1304-1374), the movement didn't really catch a lot of steam in the late 1400s.
The humanist movement was founded in the "rebirth" of classical learning and thinking, as Petrarch put
Humanist studies focused on grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy, and was the
main intellectual movement of the Renaissance.
Humanists usually emphasized human beings, their
achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Humanists typically believed in the practical education of
males, the study of classics for moral and intellectual discipline, as well as to discover the different
aspects of human nature.
Considered by many to be the father of the Renaissance.
Petrarch pushed for the rebirth
of high civilization based on classical models.
He considered the Romans to be the pinnacle of human
society and that only by reflecting on what the Romans had achieved could the society moved forward.
He described the 1000 year period between this new interest in learning and Roman society as the
Dark "Middle" Age.
Unlike philosophers in the Middle Ages, Petrarch tried to interpret the things he
learned in terms of the world and human nature, rather than relating everything back to God.
devout Christian he tended to view history and society in more of a secular light.
The Prince was a political treatise written by Machiavelli in 1513.
The Prince focuses on political power
and how it rulers should gain, maintain, and increase it.
In the Prince, Machiavelli concludes the
human beings are selfish by nature and will do anything to advance their interests, leading him to
suggest that rulers manipulate their people by any means necessary.
As a work of political theory, it
suggested that rulers need to be cunning and that they should not be concerned with an ideal society,
but be concerned about the society at hand.
The sole test of a "good" government is whether it works
Due to the pessimistic humanistic views put forth in the Prince, Machiavellian has come to be a
synonym for politically devious, corrupt and crafty.
(1469-1527) Machiavelli was an early political theorist who suggested ways for rulers to successfully
rule their kingdom.
Machiavelli was more of a pessimistic humanist, many called him a realist, and
suggested that by nature humans are very selfish.
In 1513, he wrote The Prince, in which he put forth
most of his ideas.
He stressed that a ruler needs to be cunning and should manipulate his population
by any means necessary to accomplish what needs to be accomplished.
He also did not believe that
rulers should worry about ideal societies and should focus instead on the society at hand.
measure of a "good" government is by whether it works.
The two main ideas that display Machiavelli's