Chapter 7 (1817-1840)1-Regional Economies Create DifferencesNorthwesters started Industrial Revolution¶ Eli Whitney– 1798-1801 inventor. Practiced interchangeability of parts to increase productivity. His muskets can be put together from parts chosen at random. This increased production speed and improved reliability of goods. Mademass production (production of goods in large quantities) possible in semi-mechanized factories.¶Changes in manufacturing led to Industrial Revolution - change in social and economic organization (hand tools replaced by machines, large-scale industrial production). Started in Britain 18thcentury with invention of streams generators, burning coal power generators and power-driven machinery. Mass-production of textiles. Advances in diet, medicine, sanitation prolonged life. Country had more people than jobs, making labor cheap. Merchants built factories that made labors even cheaper. ¶US had all resources for Industrial Revolution – rushing rivers, deposits of coal and iron, labor-immigrants. Embargo Act of 1807 and War of 1812 stopped international trade and turned Americans to invest in their own country, develop industries at home; produce goods to be sold in US. This created US market for mass-production goods.¶New England used to depend on shipping and foreign trade. Agriculture was not profitable. It was more ready to new form of manufacturing. 1793 Samuel Slaterestablished first mechanized textile factory in Rhode Island, built cotton-spinning machines. 1813- Boston-Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving factory in Massachusetts. All steps of manufacturing were mechanized with power machinery. 1820sLowell became manufacturing center; young women came for work.Southern developed agricultural system¶Northwest-north of Ohio River (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan) – established small farms, produced goods to sell sold locally. Cities grew; farmers increased production of corn and cattle; sell in city markets; bought goods in stores. Production of corn was not very profitable; it did not require much labor, so they did not need much slaves. Northeastern farms were smaller and self-sufficient, did not need slaves. By late 1700s, slavery in North was dying out. People voiced religious and political opposition to slavery. 1804-Almost all northern states voluntarily abolish slavery. ¶South-1793 -Eli Whitneyinvented The Cotton Gin-machine to remove seeds and clean cotton. In Southern farms - grow short-staple (short-fiber) cotton for profit and sell them to British textile mills and New England. Long-staple (long-fiber) cotton grew in South Carolina and Georgia. Poor and wealthier farmers were buying land to produce cotton for profit. Wealthier farmers bought huge areas of land and enormous slave labor for cultivating. 1820 Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama became Cotton Kingdom, accelerated expansion of slavery.