This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: The Civil War For a timeline of major battles and events in the War see: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html I. Major Issues : A. War fought by 2 sections that were unevenly matched in terms of resources B. It was first modern war 1. had a major impact on the formation of the state--meaning the federal government expanded its powers significantly (see II, A below) 2. changed the way wars are fought--modern war is "total war" (see II, B below) II. The Balance Sheet of War A. population & armies: 1. N. (w/ 3/4 of border states) 22.5 million people Had 2.1 million troops nearly 1/4 of Union soldiers were foreign born 2. S. 9 mill whites, 3.7 mill slaves had 850,000 troops but had more men with military training some historians believe that they had all the good generals 3. 4/5s of armies on both sides were volunteers or conscripts, not professionals after the initial battles, it became clear that the war was not going to be over quickly 1862--after southern defeat at Shiloh, Confederates instituted a draft but exempted 1 white man for every 20 slaves and allowed for subs--cost $300.00 in gold (3x's the annual salary of skilled workers at the time) anger over this meant some southerners refused to serve yeomen farmers condemned the "rich man's war, poor man's fight." the Confederacy was a weak decentralized govt., it couldn't force them to do anything 4. Union could be more heavy-handed b/c they had a strong centralized govt. 1862 Militia Act: set quota of volunteers to be met by each state under penalty of law enough men came forward at 1st that no one had to be conscripted; then as war dragged, numbers fell & Congress passed: 1863 Enrollment Act: higher quotas but offered cash bounties to volunteers to encourage them rich men also bought substitutes working class men angry, especially recent immigrants this set off Draft Riots in NYC, in July of 1863 whipped up by the Dems--said that Lincoln wants to free slaves & send them N to take your jobs (and marry your women!) for 5 days Irish & German immigrants ran amok, burning draft offices, sacking politician's homes, & fighting the police. lynched at least a dozen blacks & burned down a Black orphanage Lincoln sent Union troops who put it down B. Economic resources and advantages 1. North had more industry and infrastructure: 9/10s nation's industrial capacity 4/5s the nation's bank capital 3/4 its RR mileage 3/4 its taxable wealth 2. South had some industry: an iron works in Birmingham 3. AND North had harder task: invade, conquer, occupy; S just had to hold them back and hope they got tired of it northern industrial advantage didn't always make them superior: more deeply they went into S, more they had to set guards at their supply lines b/c of Confederate raiders the more they got away from RR's, the more they had to slog thru the mud, which, in the south, is like walking through glue!...
View Full Document