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Sample Academic Summary #1 – markupMalcolm Gladwell, a journalist for The New Yorker, wrote The Tipping Point in 2000 in order to explain what causes social epidemics to occur. According to Gladwell three rules govern whether an epidemic will “tip”: The Law of a Few, The Stickiness Factor and The Power of Context (Gladwell 29). Throughout the book Gladwell explains these three rules and applies familiar examples of social epidemics as well as other evidence in various forms in order to validate his argument that small factors tend to have considerable effects that “tip” epidemics. Good job – I like that you offered Gladwell some credentials as wellas noting his central claim.On pages 23-24 Gladwell discusses Jaap Goudsmit’s research analyzing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) as an indicator of AIDS post World War II. Goudsmit observed that post World War II there was a PCP epidemic throughout central Europe, and focuses on the town Heerlen. Gladwell uses this example as a tool to explain and validate his “Stickiness Factor” rule. Gladwell utilizes Goudsmit’s research by the way he frames the context of Goudsmit’s research. He first establishes logos, then transitions into establishing pathos by exaggerating infant mortality in Heerlen and finally in the conclusion he ties in the dramatic example into his argument by inferring that the slight changes in the HIV virus that caused the AIDS epidemic parallels to the minor changes that cause the “stickiness factor” of social epidemics. Another appeal to logic? And what about ethos? Would you argue that his awarenessand use of this kind of evidence works to enhance his credibility as a source of information? Although weare limited word-wise, try to squeeze in as many references to how he gets the job done as you can.Gladwell first outlines Goudsmit’s research with a factual tone by using direct diction and the order he presents information, appealing to the logos of the audience. Gladwell introduces Jaap Goudsmit as an expert in his field and directly continues into the definition of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The formal diction is intended to accurately present the facts of the disease without any emotion. This is seen when Gladwell explains that PCP in AIDS patients is, “…an almost certain indication of the presence of
the virus” (Gladwell 23) and then immediately explains Goudsmit’s work. By first establishing logos Gladwell is able to confidently assume the audience will consider the research creditable credible when he later applies it to his own ideas. Good point!I also like that you’re alluding to the organization of the text in these two sections.The first paragraph concludes by stating that the epidemic of PCP in Europe killed thousands of “small children”, which transitions into the following paragraph where Gladwell uses vivid diction in order to evoke emotion from the reader. Gladwell quickly explains to the audience that the children examined in the research were “…underweight or premature infants” (Gladwell 23). Adding the