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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5- Anxiety Disorders Anxiety- is defined as apprehension over an anticipated problem Fear- reaction to immediate danger Phobia- Focus anxiety, a disruptive fear of a particular object or situation that is out of proportion to any danger posed. o Specific Phobia- fear of objects or situations that is out of proportion to any real danger Claustrophobia- fear of closed spaces Acrophobia- fear of heights Vassophobia- fear of dirt o Social Phobia- fear of unfamiliar people or social scrutiny o Blood and Injection Phobia- Fainting at the onsite of a needle. Panic attack followed by drop in BP & fainting; Most cases are Hereditary. Panic Disorder- sudden, unexplained hyper arousal of the autonomic (Sympathetic) nervous system; Increased respirations, HR, sweating, sweating, dry mouth, nausea, chest pain, dizziness; Accompanied by feeling of apprehension, terror & impending doom; Occur once a week or more, @ 2% men, 5% women. Onset associated with stressful events. Agoraphobia- fear of a panic attack in a public place or places where escape is difficult. Generalized Anxiety Disorder- (anxiety is free floating), 5% of population, begins with teens; persistently anxious, often about minor things, Uncontrollable worry, difficulty concentrating, High muscle tension. Serotonin and NE is the neurotransmitter involved in anxiety disorders. Depersonalization- a feeling of being outside of ones body. Derealization- a feeling of the worlds not being real. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- is characterized persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or urges (obsessions) and by the need to repeat certain acts again and again. Time consuming of greater than 1 hr per day. It causes distress and Impairment. Obsessions- recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that come unbidden to the mind, and are uncontrollable. Compulsions- are repetitive behaviors/rituals/acts Treatments of phobias & Anxiety- Systematic desensitization, Flooding, Modeling, Drug Therapy( Benzodiazepines or SSRIs) Systematic Desensitization- gradually exposing patients to the phobic object until it can be tolerated. Flooding- exposing the individual to situations that represent their compulsions, but they arent allow to do them; positive reinforcement. Modeling- modeling the behavior your want the person to do ERP (Exposure & Response Prevention)- Victor Meyer-England, people expose themselves to situations that elicit the compulsive act and then refrain from performing the compulsive ritual. Types of medications used to treat anxiety disorders: (minor tranquilizers) o Benzodiazepines- work on the GABA receptors (agonist); Works at site #1 (receptor) overdose=Flumazaril Valium/diazepam- used for anxiety (active seizures) Xanax/alprazolam- used for anxiety Ativan/lorazepam- used for anxiety o Barbiturates- Work on the GABA recptors (sleeping pills) Luminal/phenobarbitol- used for anxiety, insomnia, and seizures...
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- Spring '08