Biology exam 3 Review

Biology exam 3 Review - Animal Structure and Function...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Structure and Function embryonic cells and early development-During early embryonic development, cells begin to specialize and the outemost cells begin to invaginate, The invagination causes a new cavity to form called the ARCHENTERON. This development stage is called Gastrulation, and during this stage the 3 embryonic cell layers form: Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. 1) Ectoderm Organs/organ systems developing from ectoderm:-nerves and nervous system-many of the glands (adrenal medulla, lactating glands, oil and sweat glands)-Integument system (skin, hair)-Inner ear-Lens of the eye. Development Fate:-Epidermis, CNS, Sense organs, and neural crest 2) Mesoderm Organs/organ systems developing from mesoderm:-Skeleton-Muscles-Blood-Gonads-Dermis-Kidneys (retroperitoneal) Development Fate:-Skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, heart, gonads 3) Endoderm Linings of:-Bladder-Pharynx-Respiratory system-Pancreas-Liver-Intestine Development Fate:-Lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, liver, and pancreas. Tissue types and their characteristics For Tissues, Know: Distinguishing characteristics of tissue types 4 major tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve. 1) Epithelial Tissue-Epithelium forms exterior and interior linings and coverings Ex) Skin, Inner tube of digestive tract (inside of your mouth).-Also the cells that line glands and secrete the gland products: Simple and Stratified Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar. Also pseudostratified ciliated columnar (respiratory tract, fallopian tubes). 2) Connective (supportive) Tissue-Connective cells produce a non-cellular matrix important in providing support to the organisms body. Ex) Bone, cartilage, tendons, and Blood are born from connective tissue.-Plasma is the non-cellular matrix of blood.-Collagen- an important elastic protein that composes much of the non-cellular matrix of connective tissues. Ex) cornea of eye, tendons, and ligaments, and cushions between spinal bones.-Elastin – is like collagen, but is found in places like the ear lobes. 3) Muscle Tissue-Smooth muscle – involuntary and controlled by autonomic nervous system.-Cardiac muscle – only in the heart.-Skeletal muscle – voluntary, connected to each other by tendons and to the bone by ligaments.-Actin and myosin protein fibers and the role of ATP. 4) Nerve Tissue-Electrochemical communication-Cell body – contains the nucleus.-Dendrites – receive signal and gives it to nucleus.-Axon – send signal, an extension of cytoplasm, covered by myelin sheath. Define basic organ structure-Body structure composed of several different tissues that form a structural and functional unit. Ex) The heart, which contains cardiac muscle, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue and is laced with nerve tissue....
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Biology exam 3 Review - Animal Structure and Function...

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