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Unformatted text preview: THE BAROQUE The Baroque 1600-1750 X X X Corelli X Tartini Locatelli Geminiani Instrument making reached new heights warmth of sound with natural expression Harpsichord Makers Ruckers family Hans Ruckers (1598) Comparison of Renaissance and Baroque styles A simplification of musical style: Two most important developments in the Baroque opera pure orchestral music Many composers of the Italian Baroque were violinists polyphonic to homophonic Andreas Ruckers (1651/53) Joannes II (1642) Andreas II (1645) Joannes Couchet (1655) Petrus Joannes Couchet (1671) String Makers - Stradivari _ Antonio Stradivari was born in 1644, Stradivari made harps, guitars, violas, and cellos-About 650 of these instruments survive today Herbert R. Axelrod Axelrod started the magazine Tropical Fish Hobbyist. and established his shop in Cremona, Italy more than 1,100 instruments in all _ _ This magazine, and the resulting publishing company (T.F.H. Publications), became the Axelrod built up one of the most extensive private collections of Cremonese violins Including a set of matched inlaid Stradivari which are on permanent loan to the Smithsonian String Makers - Guarneri largest publisher of animal and pet books in the world. Institution _ Giuseppe Guarneri Keyboard Makers X Pianoforte Bartolommeo Cristofori 1655-1731 One of two instruments in existence - 1722 1698-1744 _ Organ Gottfried Silbermann 1683-1753 The term "Baroque" X X X X X X X X X X X X Politics: Absolute monarchies Science: The New World Middle class culture: Amateurs Religion: Protestant & Catholic Art: Dramatic Artists under patronage Music in Colonial America Musical Systems X Division of the octave in Western music Equal Temperment Intervals: Whole and half steps Scales: major, minor, chromatic the major and minor system Transposition Active chords: Tonic, dominant, subdominant Giulio Caccini (b Rome or Tivoli, 1551, d Florence 1618) Italian singer, composer, and lutenist. Taken to Florence by Cosimo I de' Medici, c. 1565. Sang in X X 1579 at festivities for wedding of Francesco de' Medici and Bianca Cappello. One of members of Count Giovanni de Bardi's Camerata, some of his music was included in Peri's Euridice to Rinuccini's libretto which he then also set in 1600. From 1595 to 1600 worked in Genoa, returning to Florence 1600 on receiving commission to compose opera Il rapimento di Cefalo, performed in Florence 1600 for wedding of Maria de' Medici to Henri IV of France. Visited Paris 1603 and 1604-1605 at invitation of Maria de' Medici. His daughter Francesca was a celebrated singer. C. 1557-1612 Giovanni Gabrieli X X X Nephew and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli Greatest composer of the Venetian school Organist at St. Mark's Cathedral One of the first to write for combined voices and instruments First to develop orchestration First to indicate varied dynamics Polychoral (more than one choir) and antiphonal (call and response) style: developed in St. Marks principal composer: Giovanni Gabrieli Development of Monody or, the accompanied song Florentine Camerata birth of opera Harmonic structure Basso continuo 1564-1642 Galileo Galilei X major-minor tonality equal temperment Style characteristics driving rhythm, freer in vocal music dissonance is now used as an expressive device The melody is continuous, tied to text terraced dynamics Monody (one song) music for a singer and instrumental accompaniment. This style actually developed over many years, but CE 1600 seems to be the "coming out" time. _ Monody was developed by a group of writers, artists, and musicians in Florence, Italy, Florentine Camerata _ Members included Vincenzo Galileli (1520-1591), known to us as the "Florentine Camerata" or Florentine Salon dedicated himself to the teaching of music and was the father of the astronomer Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) group _ Count Giovanni Bardi (they met at his home Florentine Camerata _The Camerata intended to resurrect ancient Greek drama and felt that music would increase the power of the text. _This led to stile rappresentativo (representative style) or a style of music where a melody freely moves over simple chords. chords. Music in 1600 was beginning to move away from complex counterpoint. counterpoint. The Birth of Opera _ _ This was le nuove musiche (the new music). _This style could be applied to an entire drama. What's in an Opera _ Recitatives Giulio Caccini (c. 1545-1618), a composer and inventor of the recitative style Jacopo Peri (1561-1633), a composer, singer, and organist and possibly a member of the Perhaps this is the single most important development of the Baroque: the invention of OPERA! _ _ _ _ _ Arias Ensembles Overture Libretto Ritornello Claudio Monteverdi May 15, 1567 - November 29, 1643 X X X X X X X X X X X _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1567 Born in Cremona, Northern Italy, son of a chemist 1583 After musical training at the cathedral school in Cremona, publishes his first 1589 Appointed violist at the Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga of Mantua's court around 1595, 1599 Traveled to Hungary and to Flanders 1599 Marries a court singer, Claudia de Cattaneis 1601 becomes the Director of Court Music in Mantua 1607 Production of his first important opera, Orfeo. Monteverdi's wife dies, after which he 1612 The Duke dies and Monteverdi leaves for Venice Claudio Monteverdi 1567-1643 1613 Appointed Music Director at St. Mark's 1630 Takes holy orders after surviving a serious outbreak of the plague in Venice 1643 Monteverdi dies in Venice Expanded the orchestra and wrote for specific instruments (the first to do this was Composed 8 books of madrigals, dramatic scenes, religious music and operas Greatest early Italian Baroque composer Composed the first operatic masterpiece in the modern style (Orfeo) (Orfeo) Orfeo Composed in 1607 in Mantua. Monteverdi is the first great opera composer Orfeo is the first great opera Composed in 1607, the year Jamestown was founded. Based on the Orpheus legend of the poet who tried to rescue his beloved from Hell. compositions, a set of sacred madrigals (Monteverdi was 23) suffers a nervous breakdown Giovanni Gabrieli - c. 1557-1612) Monteverdi is true to the legend - the rescue attempt fails _ _ _ opera _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ One of three surviving operas by Monteverdi. L'Orfeo is considered the first authentic opera. Orfeo was at first produced only privately but later became part of a move toward public Orfeo was first performed in America as a concert at the Met in 1912 with the first stage Its greatest audience today comes from TV Orfeo - synopsis Legend has it that Orpheus had such a wonderful voice that the beasts of the jungle Orpheus - poet and singer Eurydice, his wife who dies Orpheus follows her to Hades and wins her back with his singing on one condition Orpheus' grief turns him against all women The Muses collect his body and bury it at the foot of Mt. Olympus Apollo, his father appears and together they return to heaven where Orfeo will see Eurydice performance in 1929 in Northampton, Mass. followed after his song and trees uprooted themselves to follow after him! in the stars The opera is in 5 acts _ _ This is the most popular of all Greek myths. Performance: Toccata and prologue (1-2) Orpheus searches for Euridice La messaggiera (9) Tu se' morta (10) Orpheus looks back (5) Orpheus and his father, Apollo, ascend to heaven (8) ...
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- Spring '07