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Lab 1 - Extraction - The Extraction of Benzoic Acid from a...

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The Extraction of Benzoic Acid from a Mixture Chemistry 0330 Hikmat Daghestani Lauren Allen 9/10/07
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Introduction The purpose of the experiment was to successfully complete the separation of a benzoic acid, methyl orange, and cellulose mixture via extraction, chemically active extraction, and vacuum filter techniques. In addition, it is to understand the relationships between density, solubility, and polarity and how they will allow for this experiment to be completed successfully. Reactions/Mechanism/Theory Extraction is a method used for separating a mixture, or basically, taking something that is dissolved in one liquid and moving it to another. This works because the solute is more soluble in one layer than in the other. Most organic matter does not dissolve in water due to the fact that water is a polar molecule and usually organic molecules are not. Via the “like dissolves like” principle it is possible to remove ions and other chemicals from an organic solvent to form an aqueous solution by adding water or by adding another aqueous solution itself. The ions and other polar chemicals are more soluble in the aqueous layer and will therefore readily dissolve into this layer. Chemically active extraction is a type of extraction that removes neutral molecules from a mixture. During chemically active extraction, one layer is modified so that it is no longer a solvent for the neutral molecules. This can be done by adding an acid or a base. Then after the separation occurs, the molecules are drained and the opposite (either acid or base) of what was added to modify the layer previously is now added to change it back to what it used to be. When doing chemically active extraction, it is more useful to do the procedure twice, for example two times with 15 mL of modifier than it is to do the procedure once with 30 mL of it.
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