Lab 6 - Fractional Distillation

Lab 6 - Fractional Distillation - The Fractional...

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The Fractional Distillation of a Binary Mixture Chemistry 0330 Hikmat Daghestani Lauren Allen 10/15/07
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Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to explore fractional distillation and use this technique to separate an unknown binary mixture into two separate components. The percent composition of each component in the mixture and the identification of each of the unknown components were also accomplished. Reactions/Mechanism/Theory Fractional distillation is a powerful way of separating two or more miscible liquids.” (3) Fractional distillation is a technique that sums the effects of multiple simple distillations. The advantage in the use of fractional distillation is it may be used for mixtures of which each component has a similar boiling point. If a beaker full of a binary mixture, each component with very different boiling points from the other, is heated, approximately all the vapors in the beaker will be of the lower boiling point. Likewise, if a beaker full of a binary mixture each with boiling points that vary slightly from the other is heated, there will be a certain ratio of the concentration of high to low component in the vapor. Still, in this case more of the lower than the higher boiling point component will be present in the gaseous phase. Each time this distillation process occurs, taking the vapors from the previous distillation, the percent concentration of the lower boiling point in the mixture will go up and that of the higher will go down. This can be done until almost all the vapors are that of the lower boiling point. The only difference in the apparatus set up is the addition of a fractionating column. The fractionating column contains glass beads on which the vapor condenses
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on. The liquid then re-evaporates and travels up the column further and then re- condenses on another glass bead. This repeats itself, and is a lot like going through many simple distillations. “Each distillation inside the column is called a theoretical plate (TP.)” (recitation, Nate Ware.) The greater the amount of TPs the better the separation between the two components. The TP depends on both column length and the packing material. The longer the column length the greater the amount of TPs and the greater the surface area on the packing material, the greater the amount of TPs as well. “HETP is the
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Lab 6 - Fractional Distillation - The Fractional...

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