INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY, rock types, and tectonics

INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY, rock types, and tectonics -...

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INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY ** The science of landforms, their origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution. -- The development and changes on the earth's surface over time. Basic Terms: Landform : individual element of a landscape Topography : Earth's ridges, valley's & other surface features Uniformitarianism : The belief that the same geologic processes have been happening since the earth was created Catastrophism : The belief that earths features were created by a series of catastrophic events Types of Landforms: 1) Eolian : those developed by wind 2) Fluvial : those developed by moving liquid water 3) Glacial : those developed by glacial ice(solid water) 4) Tectonic : developed by the rearrangement of the Earth's crust , driven by internal energy 5) Coastal : those developed by waves Landforms and systems change, but tend to be in some form of an equilibrium state 1) Steady-state : little change, inputs and outputs are equal 2) Dynamic Equilibrium : fluctuates around an average value, but demonstrates a trend over time Geomorphic Processes : relationship between external and internal processes and forces 1) External Processes : occur on the surface: weathering and erosion by fluvial, glacial, ect 2) Internal Processes : Those that occur within earth’s crust: volcanism, diastrophism (mountain building), plate tectonics (massive crustal rearrangement EARTH'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE
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Characteristics: * arranged in concentric layers * heavier elements towards the center * each layer distinct in chemical composition or temperature * result of cooling since formation of the earth, some 4.6 billion years before present(BYBP) ** How do we know? --- only by indirect evidence ; Seismic waves * Siesmic waves refract when the enter new mediums * wave changes in the temp and density materialx -- cooler=higher velocity -- hotter=slower velcity --- 3 types of seismic waves: 1) P waves = primary waves of compression. Moves at the greatest speed 2) S waves = Secondary waves with sheer motion 3) L waves = Love waves that travel on the surface, slowest The Earth's Layers: Inner Core : * Solid molten iron due to the immense pressure and heat * consists of iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni) * 3200 mi below sea level (bsl), 760 mi thick Outer Core : * Liquid iron
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* consists of Fe and Ni, but lower pressure so it’s melting temp is lower=liquid * 1800 mi bsl; 1400 mi thick * generates 90% of the Earth's magnetic field ** Gutenberg discontinuity -- an uneven, broad transition zone between the Outer Core and the Lower Mantle * discontinuity = a physical difference or change, esp. density, between two layers Lower Mantle : * solid * cosists of oxides of FE, MG, and Silicon * 415mi bsl; 1385 mi thick Upper Mantle : * partially molten * consists of silicates * 25 mi bsl; about 380 mi thick
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course GEOG 1111 taught by Professor Hopkins during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY, rock types, and tectonics -...

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