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Final Notes - Integrity if actions match up with...

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Integrity- if actions match up with commitments Argument: a list of sentences, the last of which is the Conclusion, the rest of which are the premises, where the conclusion is supposed to follow from the premises Philosophy is practical because it is about making arguments that anyone can agree with Ways not to argue 1. Ad Hominem- attacks the other person- Should attack their views not the person 2. Appeal to Authority- they’re brilliant, so we should believe them 3. Straw Person- responses are made to another argument: you make out your opponent’s position to be very weak 4. Deny the conclusion without argument- “oh that’s crazy” 5. Circular Argument- conclusion is one of your premises If….then- valid form of argumentation If premises are true, conclusion must be true Soundness- a sound argument is one which is a. valid b. premises are in fact true Conclusion is true- never call an argument true Premises are true If conclusion is not true, argument can be valid Valid, sound, invalid, unsound- argument Sound argument has to be true Proposition- a suggestion; to set forth an idea then to question it Racialism-sorting people by heritable characteristics Cognitive problem- in the way you think the world is; creating something that isn’t really there-racialism Extrinsic racism- more intellectual, courageous or less than others; judge others morals, say they’re worse than others Intrinsic racism- prefer own people; what’s in their best interest; intrinsic racists use extrinsic reasons to cover their true reasons Non sequitur- abrupt change between ideas/claims that don’t follow from the other False consciousness- become convinced of something not really true, but what you think is a useful fiction for you Racist disposition is a disposition to not change your opinion in the face of evidence against your opinion
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Defeater- is a belief B1 that is held to be incompatible with another belief B2, hence arguments or evidence supporting B1 can be used to refute B2. Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 If you have good will, you’re a good person Intrinsic racism is wrong- privileging one race over another without acknowledging their will If you don’t know people, no reason to give differential treatment to one of them- it’s irrational Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832 Increase religious toleration 1 st funds for public education Significant prison reform Increased toleration and rights for women He came up with plan to build a canal in Panama Principle of Utility- Utilitarianism Doing what’s right in the situation. Whatever benefits society Action that will provide most pleasure-compared to least pain, do it GGGNITLR- greatest good for the greatest number of people in the long run Greatest Happiness Principle- actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness Peter Singer Maybe most influential living philosopher; 1975-Animal Liberation We, in 1971, ought to give most of our money to the Bengal Relief Fund (Conclusion, which follows from the below premises) 1. Death and Suffering from….is bad
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