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Descartes - Wars over Religion 1517-1648 German states...

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Wars over Religion, 1517-1648 German states, 1525-1555, divided between Catholics and Lutherans France, 1562-1598, Calvinists tolerated Dutch Republic, 1566-1648, Calvinist (Descartes fought briefly for Dutch 1617) Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 the end of the vision of religious unity
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Europe’s Religious Division
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Consequences of Religious War Devastation of Central Europe opens way to Dutch, English, French Religion drops out as motive for European conflict – rise of “secular” State stability counts more than religious orthodoxy Revival of Paganism – continuing Renaissance Skepticism as a moral and intellectual stance
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Michel de Montaigne, Essays, 1580s Now, to return to my subject [Cannibals], I find that there is nothing barbarous and savage in this nation, by anything that I can gather, excepting, that every one gives the title of barbarism to everything that is not in use in his own country. As, indeed, we have no other level of truth and reason, than the example and idea of the opinions and customs of the place wherein we live:
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