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Intro to Management Chapter 6 Summary.docx.pdf -...

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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENTCHAPTER 6: ORGANIZATIONSTRUCTURE AND DESIGNIndeed, the working relationship betweenmanagers and their subordinates is one of the mostcritical elements comprising an organization.I. THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZINGA.Job specialization.Job specializationis the degree to which theoverall task of the organization is broken downand divided into smaller component parts.Job specialization provides four benefits toorganizations.1.First, workers performing small, simple taskswill become very proficient at each task.2.Second, transfer time between tasksdecreases. If employees perform severaldifferent tasks, some time is lost as they stopdoing the first task and start doing the next.3.Third, the more narrowly defined a job isthe easier it is to develop specializedequipment to assist with that job.4.Fourth, when an employee who performs ahighly specialized job is absent or resigns,the manager is able to train someone new atrelatively low cost.On the other hand, job specialization can havenegative consequences. The foremost criticism isthat workers who perform highly specialized jobsmay become bored and dissatisfied. The job may beso specialized that it offers no challenge orstimulation. Boredom and monotony set in,absenteeism rises, and the quality of the work maysuffer.Five Alternatives to SpecializationFive alternative approaches are job rotation, jobenlargement, job enrichment, job characteristicsapproach, and work teams.1.Job rotationinvolves systematically movingemployees from one job to another.2.Job enlargementwas developed to increase thetotal number of tasks workers perform. As aresult, all workers perform a wide variety oftasks, which presumably reduces the level ofjob dissatisfaction.Unfortunately, although job enlargement does havesome positive consequences, those are often offset bysome disadvantages: (1) training costs usually increase,(2) unions have argued that pay should increasebecause the worker is doing more tasks, and (3) inmany cases the work remains boring and routine evenafter job enlargement.3.Job enrichmentis an alternative to jobspecialization which attempts to increase boththe number of tasks a worker does and thecontrol the worker has over the job.To implement job enrichment, managers remove somecontrols from the job delegate more authority toemployees, and structure the work complete, naturalunits.4.The job characteristics approachis analternative to job specialization that suggeststhat jobs should be diagnosed and improvedalong five core dimensions, taking into accountboth the work system and employeepreferences.a.Skill variety,the number of things aperson does in a jobb.Task identity,the extent to which theworker does a complete or identifiableportion of the total jobc.Task significance,the perceivedimportance of the taskd.Autonomy,the degree of control theworker has over how the work isperformede.Feedback,the extent to which theworker knows how well the job is being

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Term
Summer
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Tags
Management, Learning Organization

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