BLAW 2210: Legal & Regulatory Environment - Guide Ch. 22+23

BLAW 2210: Legal & Regulatory Environment - Guide Ch....

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Chapter 22    Employment Discrimination Introduction The most important federal anti-discrimination laws are: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act. The Equal Pay Act. The Americans with Disabilities Act. §1: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, color, religion, and national  origin. “Sex” now includes pregnancy. Applies to employers involved with interstate commerce with 15 or more employees.  In addition to prohibiting religious discrimination, employers must reasonably accommodate an employee’s  religious practices. EEOC : monitors compliance with Title VII . Intentional Discrimination “Disparate-Treatment” Discrimination.  Applicant must prove: Is a member of a protected class; Applied, qualified , rejected for job;  Employer continued to seek applicants.    Burden then shifts to employer who must articulate a legal reason for not hiring. Unintentional Discrimination “Disparate Impact” Discrimination: Occurs when a protected group of people is adversely affected by an employer’s  practices,  procedures, or tests, even though they do not appear to be discriminatory.   à Pool of Applicants Test :  plaintiff shows percentage of the protected class in employer’s workforce  does not reflect percentage in local labor market.   à Selection Rates Test : plaintiff compares selection rates of members of protected class with  nonmembers in employer’s workforce. According to EEOC, less than 80% may show disparate  impact. Discrimination Based on Race, Color, and National Origin Title VII prohibits employment policies or intentional/ negligent discrimination on basis of race, color or  national origin.   à Policies that discriminate are illegal, unless (except for race) they have a substantial demonstrable  relationship to realistic qualifications for job.   à Reverse” Discrimination: Title VII also protects against discrimination against majority group  individuals, such as white males. Ricci v. DeStefano  (2009) : Supreme Court held City of New Haven’s testing and promotion  procedures were race-conscious and discriminatory against white firefighters, violating Title  VII. Potential Section 1981 claims: prohibits discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity in the formation or enforcement of contracts Discrimination Based on Religion
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Employers must “reasonably accommodate” the “sincerely held” religious practices of its employees,  unless   to do so would cause undue hardship to employer’s business.
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