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The Opium Wars and Treaty SystemCauses of the WaroChinese Tribute System versus British ImperialismoTribute System:China as overlord/recognition/protectionTributary states/envoy/ritual (kneel down 3 times and bow their headsand touch the gourd 9 times)/tradeRitual control > territorial controlPortugal/Spain/Holland 1553portugal got macao in 1557 as a trading post from China,which later became the first colony in ChinaMacartney's mission 1793 from Englandthey wanted free trade/equal diplomatic relations/an island fortrading this is a time where there was a clash between the tributesystem and imperial system. Wanting the island is seen as colonialambition from EnglandEmperor at the time was Qianlong, he ruled from 1736-96 and died in1799Emperor expected Macartney to perform the ritual but he wouldn't,and he only knelt on one knee and the emperor got angry and rejected himand he was removed from the court and his mission was a failureoSelf-sufficiency versus free tradeoCanton System started in China in 1759near Hong KongOnly Canton and Guangzhou were allowed to be trading portfor foreigners
13 merchant-guild called a Cohong and as a result theymonopolized all the foreign trade in Canton and they became extremelyrichBritish East India Company held a monopoly 1834oOpium IssueoBritish tea import/lead to trade deficit/found opium in India and started