breast.docx - Aging woman On inspection breasts look...

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Abnormal Findings:Breast Lump Benign breast disease (formerly fibrocystic breast disease) Cancer Fibroadenoma Abnormal Findings:Retraction and Inflammation Nipple retraction Fixation Edema (peau d’orange) Deviation in nipple pointing Aging woman On inspection, breasts look pendulous, flat, and sagging. Nipples may be retracted but can be pulled outward. On palpation, breasts feel more granular; terminal ducts around nipple feel more prominent and stringy. Thickening of inframammary ridge at lower breast is normal and feels more prominent with age. Reinforce value of BSE. Women over 50 years old have increased risk of breast cancer. Older women may have problems with arthritis, limited range of motion, or decreased vision that may inhibit self-care. Suggest aids to self-examination; for example, talcum powder helps fingers glide over skin. Abnormal Findings: Abnormal Nipple Discharge Mammary duct ectasia Carcinoma Intraductal papilloma Paget disease (intraductal carcinoma) Abnormal Findings: Male Breast Gynecomastia Male breast cancer Abnormal Findings: Disorders During Lactation Plugged duct Breast abscess Mastitis [Grab your reader’s attention with a great quote from the document or use this space to emphasize a key point. To place this text box anywhere on the page, just drag it.] Pregnant woman Breasts increase in size, as do nipples. Delicate blue vascular pattern is visible over the breasts. Jagged linear stretch marks, or striae, may develop if breasts have large increase. Nipples become darker and more erectile. Areolae widen; grow darker; and contain small, scattered, elevated Montgomery’s glands. On palpation, breasts feel more nodular, and thick yellow colostrum can be expressed after first trimester. Lactating woman Colostrum changes to milk production around the third postpartum day. Breasts may become engorged, appearing enlarged, reddened, and shiny and feeling warm and hard. Frequent nursing helps drain ducts and sinuses and stimulate milk production. Nipple soreness is normal, appearing around twentieth nursing, lasting 24 to 48 hours, then disappearing. Nipples may look red and irritated; may even crack but will heal rapidly if kept dry and exposed to air; frequent nursing is best treatment for nipple soreness Infants and children In neonate, breasts may be enlarged and visible due to maternal estrogen crossing placenta. May secrete a clear or white fluid, called “witch’s milk” This is not significant and is resolved within a few days to a few weeks. Note position of nipples on prepubertal child. Should be symmetric, just lateral to midclavicular line, between fourth and fifth ribs Nipple is flat, and areola is darker pigmented. Adolescent girl Breast development usually begins on an average between 8 and 10 years.

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