Ch6-11 - Chapter 6 VPs, DPs, and Adjectives Goals Fix the...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 6 VPs, DPs, and Adjectives Goals Fix the VP Rule Fix the DP Rule Formulate the Adjective Phrase (AP) rule 1 Where We Are Let us reconsider our rules: (1) S DP VP VP V (DP) (PP) DP D (NP) (PP) NP (A) N PP P (DP) 2 What’s Wrong With the VP? Our VP rule is not quite accurate enough yet. Let’s start off by asking how we figure out whether a set of words forms a VP or not. Thus far, we identified a way of doing this: did too can replace VPs: (2) (a) John saw Bill and Frank saw Bill (b) John saw Bill and Frank did too. In (b) did too replaces saw Bill . Because saw Bill can be replaced as a unit, it must be a phrase. Since a verb comes first, it must be a verb phrase: i.e. a VP. Notice that some things are not included in the VP. For example, look at the following sentences: (3) (a) John saw Bill and Frank saw Bill while Mary laughed. (b) John saw Bill and Frank did too while Mary laughed. (c) *John saw Bill and did too while Mary laughed. (d) *John saw Bill and Frank saw did too Mary laughed. (e) *John saw Bill and Frank did too laughed. In (b), did too replaces saw Bill ; this means that saw Bill must form a phrase together. However, did too cannot replace Frank saw Bill in (c), indicating that they cannot form a phrase on their own, nor can it replace Bill while in (d), nor while Mary in (e). So, these sequences must not form phrases. E XERCISE 5: T HINKING ABOUT VP S Find examples of VPs where the VP rule does not work.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Among other things, you may have come up with John gave the cat the money and John traded the man the money for the car , or sentences with similar structure. To account for these sentences, we need to change the VP rule: (4) VP V (DP)(DP)(PP) This rule prevents certain ungrammatical sentences from occurring. For example, the rule predicts that the following will be ungrammatical, and they are: (5) (a) * John gave to Mary the money. (i.e. V PP DP) (b) * John traded him the money the car (i.e. V DP DP DP) Take careful note: the order of elements in a rule is very important. The rule VP V DP is not the same as VP DP V. The first rule has a V before the DP, while the latter has the DP after the V. 3 Recursion Let us now consider the following sentences: (6) (a) John said that Mary ran. (b) Bill thought that John said that Mary ran. (c) Fred knew that Bill thought that John said that Mary ran. The sentences above provide evidence that in principle, there is no longest sentence in natural language . For any sentence, you can always make it longer. In other words, natural language has RECURSION : there are a finite amount of words in a given language, but these words can generate an infinite amount of sentences. One grammatical element in natural language that allows recursion is the complementizer (C) that. In light of the data above, we must further modify our rules so that they are
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 16

Ch6-11 - Chapter 6 VPs, DPs, and Adjectives Goals Fix the...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online