Chapter 18 Lecture 18 Key Terms

Chapter 18 Lecture 18 Key Terms - Chapter 18 Lecture 18 1...

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Chapter 18 – Lecture 18 1. Social psychology – the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and related to one another. 2. Attribution theory – suggest how we explain someone’s behavior- either attribute it to the person’s disposition or to the situation. [ In terms of how the presence of other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and behavior). 3. Dispositional attribution – behavior caused by factors internal to the person. 4. Situational attribution – behavior caused by external factors. 5. Fundamental attribution error – tendency to overestimate internal factors (eg traits or attributes), and to underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior. a. (1979) David Napolitan and George Goethals – had students talk one at a time with a young woman who acted either aloof and critical or warm and friendly. Half the students were told that the woman’s behavior would be spontaneous, the other half were told that she was instructed to act friendly (or unfriendly). The results: the students disregarded the information and described the woman based upon how she acted during the conversation. They attributed her behavior to her personal disposition instead of how she was instructed to act. b. Or attribute poor grades to something internal (unintelligent or lazy), rather than situational (family problems). c. However, research has shown that when the perspectives of the actor and observer is reversed – by having each view a videotape replay of the situation from the other’s perspective – the attributions reverse also. 6. Actor-observer Effect – tendency for the actor (person performing behavior) to attribute behavior to the situation, while the observer attributes the same behavior to the actor’s disposition (internal factors). 7. Attitudes – feelings we have toward an object, person, or idea based on our beliefs and affect our behavior. (eg if we believe someone is mean, we may feel dislike toward the individual and act unfriendly). a. Attitudes can affect actions – but does not predict behavior perfectly due to factors such as external situation. b. Actions can affect attitudes – people will sometimes stand up for what they believe and will also come to believe in what they stood up for.
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8. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon – continuation of the action can affect attitudes - the tendency for people who have first agreed to a smaller request to comply later with a larger request. a.
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course PSYC 7A taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '99 term at UC Irvine.

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Chapter 18 Lecture 18 Key Terms - Chapter 18 Lecture 18 1...

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