A MERICAN S PEECH-LANGUAGE-H EARING A SSOCIATION Treatment Efficacy Summary Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders Difficulties in sucking, swallowing, and breathing can severely compro-mise nutrition and hydration status in infants who get their nutrition needs met via breast or bottle. Difficulty in swallowing in infants and children, as in older children and adults, can cause food or liquid to enter the airway resulting in some or all of the following: coughing, choking, pulmonary problems, or inadequate nutrition and/or hydra-tion with lack of weight gain—which is like a weight loss in adults and older children. Clinical evidence has documented that children with swal-lowing and feeding problems benefit from the services of a speech-language pathologist, who may function as part of a team of professionals. Feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children are usually caused by multiple factors. They can result from congenital or acquired neurologic damage (e.g., encephalopathies), anatomic and structural problems (e.g., craniofa-cial anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula), genetic conditions (chromo-
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