HSC 156 Study Guide for Exam 3 ans-1

HSC 156 Study Guide for Exam 3 ans-1 - HSC 156 Study Guide...

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HSC 156 Study Guide for Exam 3 1. What percent of the earth’s water is freshwater? 3% 2. How do we define freshwater (vs. saltwater)? Has a salt content of less than 0.01% or 100 ppm. 3. What are some of the major impacts of a water shortage? o conflicts o public health problems o reduce food production o endanger the environment 4. Be able to describe the Hydrologic Cycle o Water rises into the atmosphere by Water rises into the atmosphere by o Evaporation Evaporation o Transpiration Transpiration o Water leaves the atmosphere by condensation & precipitation Water leaves the atmosphere by condensation & precipitation 5. Which is more likely to be polluted, surface water or ground waster? – surface water 6. What is the mountain effect ? – Wind moving up the side of a mountain cools and water vapor condenses resulting in precipitation. 7. What is meant by water infiltration? o Ground water seeps laterally until it finds the lowest area level Ground water seeps laterally until it finds the lowest area level o Aquifers are layers of porous material in which ground water moves Aquifers are layers of porous material in which ground water moves o Recharge area is an area where water enters an aquifer Recharge area is an area where water enters an aquifer o As the water percolates through the soil, debris, & bacteria are filtered out As the water percolates through the soil, debris, & bacteria are filtered out 8. What are two types of water discharge and how does this relate to surface water? o Seeps & springs feed streams, lakes, & rivers Seeps & springs feed streams, lakes, & rivers o Ground water eventually becomes surface water & begins to evaporate again Ground water eventually becomes surface water & begins to evaporate again 9. What are 3 major human impacts on water? o Changing the Earth’s surface Changing the Earth’s surface o Pollution Pollution o Withdrawals for use Withdrawals for use 10. Describe some of the ways that pollution of the water cycle occurs. – many sources of water pollution: agricultural run off, leaking landfills, air pollution becomes water pollution when it rains, industrial pollution, even residential – storm sewer runoff. This a more serious problem in surface water than in ground water. 11. Describe the different types of demand on freshwater and how much water is used by each type of demand o Irrigation & other agricultural uses 700 gallon per day per person o Electrical power production 600 gallons per day per person o Industrial use 370 gallons per day per person o Residential use 100 gallon per day per person 12. What is the number one use of water world-wild? agriculture 13. Name the two consequences of overdrawing surfaces waters o Results in shortages o Ecological effects 14. What is the maximum percentage of the average flow of a river that can be taken without facing future shortages and other problems?
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