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Neuroscience Lecture 8.docx - Neuroscience Lecture 8/9...

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Neuroscience Lecture 8/9Neuroanatomical terms:-Rostral (anterior); towards the front-Caudal (posterior); towards the rear-Superior (dorsal); towards the top/above another part-Inferior (ventral): towards the base/below another part-Medial; towards the midline-Lateral: towards the sides-Ipsilateral; on the same side-Contralateral; on the opposite side.Divisions of the Brain.Nervous system development; The basics-Forms fromectoderm(skin, nervous system)– neural plate – neural groove – neural tube-outermost germ layer-Neuroectoderm thickens into neural plate (flat sheet of cells)-17 days post-conceptionGerm LayersEndoderm – gut, liver, lungsMesoderm – skeleton, muscle, kidney, heart, bloodEctoderm – skin, nervous systemNervous system development1.Neuroectoderm thickens intoneural plate(flat sheet of cells)2.Lateral edges of the plate become elevated-Resulting space;Neural groove(forms rostral to caudal)-Walls of groove:neural folds3.Neural foldsmove together to fuse, formingneural tube-Forms theCNS-22 days post-conception-Failure to fuse;anencephaly (anterior) or spina bifida(posterior)4.As neural tube closes, area lateral to tube becomesneural crest-EntirePNSdevelops from neural crestCNS vs PNS-Central nervous system(CNS) = brain and spinal cord-Peripheral nervous system(PNS) = peripheral nerves.Somatic:axons carrying information from the body to the brain (sensory) and from thebrain to the body (motor).Autonomic:controls involuntary, autonomic actions of organs (sympathetic (arousing) andparasympathetic (calming))
Differentiation: 3 Primary Vesicles-Rostral end of theneural tubedifferentiates into3 primary brain vesicles-Prosencephalon.Pro = before.Cephalon – brain-Forebrain-Mesencephalon.Mes =middle-Midbrain-Rhombencephalon-HindbrainDifferentiation: 5 Secondary Brain Vesicles-By 5 weeks post-conception, the three primary vesicles have become five secondary vesicles-Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, Myelencephalon (eachassociated with a distinct division of the brain)Forebrain-Telencephalon-DiencephalonMidbrain-MesencephalonHindbrain-Metencephalon-Myelencephalon(cheat sheet – way to remember – Tell Dino Messa Met Myles)Hindbrain-The hindbrain differentiates into. Myelencephalon; Medulla. Metencephalon; Pons and cerebellum-Associated ventricle is the4thventricle.Myelencephalon; Medulla-Medulla; Functionally and anatomically similar to the spinal cord-Responsible forvital reflexessuch as; breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughingand sneezing.Metencephalon: Pons-Pons: Lies on each side of the medulla-Works with the medulla toincrease arousal and readinessof other parts of the brain-Pathways forinformation flowto and from the cerebellum; ‘bridge’Metencephalon: Cerebellum
-Cerebellum-Helpsregulatemotor movement, balance and coordination-Also important forshifting attentionbetween auditory and visual stimuli-Damage can result inCerebellar ataxia

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