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The Autonomic NervousSystemHuman Anatomy & Physiology II(BIO 202)
ObjectivesDefine Autonomic Nervous SystemCompare and contrast the general structure andfunction of the parasympathetic and sympatheticdivisions of the ANSDefine cholinergic and adrenergic fibers and listthe different types of receptors for eachSpecifically describe the effects of sympatheticand parasympathetic innervation on the followingorgans: heart, blood vessels, GI tract, lungs,adrenal medulla, and external genitalia
Structural Organization of theNervous System
Autonomic Nervous SystemPortion of the nervoussystem that operates incomparative secrecyIt manages a multitude ofunconscious processesresponsible for the body’shomeostasisHomeostasis cannot bemaintained without theANSPlay major role in thestability of our internalenvironment
General Properties of the ANSAutomatic nervous system(ANS) consists of motorneurons that:Innervate smooth muscles,cardiac muscle, and glandsMake adjustments to ensureoptimal support for body activitiesShunts blood to areas that need itand adjusts heart rate, bloodpressure, digestive processes, etc.Operate via subconscious control
Somatic Motor Pathways vsAutonomic Motor Pathways
Somatic Motor PathwaysvsAutonomic Motor PathwaysTwo-neuron chainEffectorsEfferent Pathwaysand GangliaResponsesto NTs
Divisions of ANSTwo arms of ANS:Parasympathetic division: promotesmaintenance functions, conserves energySympathetic division: mobilizes body duringactivityDual innervation: all visceral organs areserved by both divisions, but thesedivisions cause opposite effectsDynamic antagonism between two divisionsmaintains homeostasis
Parasympathetic DivisionPromotesmaintenancefunctions andconserves bodyenergySometimes calledthe “rest and digest”system
Sympathetic DivisionMobilizes the bodyduring activityOften called “fight orflight” systemExercise, excitement,emergency,embarrassmentactivates sympatheticsystem
Anatomical DifferencesBetween ANS Divisions
Table 14.1Anatomical and Physiological Differences between the Parasympathetic and SympatheticDivisions
ParasympatheticDivision
Parasympathetic DivisionAlso calledcraniosacral divisionbecause fibers originate from brain stem

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Term
Spring
Professor
AlanA.Thompson
Tags
sympathetic trunk

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