Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 2...

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1 Chapter 2 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 2 key words 1. fact —objective statement based on observation, agreed upon that it is true 2. theory —belief or set of beliefs one as used to explain facts and predict new ones 3. hypothesis —specific prediction about what will be observed in a research study, derived from a  theory 4. independent   variable —changed by an experimenter, affects dependent variable 5. dependent   variable —variable dependent upon independent variable, measured by experimenter 6. experiment —research design for testing hypotheses about cause-effect, relationships in which  one variable is manipulated to change another 7. correlational study —researcher observes or measures (without manipulating) 2 or more  variables to find relationships between them, can’t show causation 8. descriptive study —researcher observes behavior without looking for relationships between  variables 9. laboratory study —study held in specifically designated areas to facilitate experimenters ability to  control the environment 10. field study —study held in any location outside of laboratory 11. self-report methods —people rate or describe their own behaviors 12. observational methods —researcher observes certain behaviors 13. naturalistic observation —researcher observes ongoing behavior in a natural setting without  manipulating any variables 14. tests —stimuli or problems deliberately made by a researcher for subject to respond to 15. descriptive statistics —summarizing sets of data 16. inferential statistics —determine how confident they can be in drawing conclusions 17. mean —average 18. median —center score
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1 Chapter 2 Study Guide Psychology 101 19. mode —most-frequently occurring score 20. variability —spread of the data 21. standard deviation —square root of variance, measure of variability 22. correlation   coefficient —measure of strength and direction of the relationship between two  variables 23. statistical significance — how small the likelihood is that results occurred by chance 24. error —random variability 25. bias —nonrandom effects caused by extraneous factors 26. biased   sample —subject of the population, not representative of the population as a whole 27. reliable —how likely it is experiment will produce the same results again 28. valid —degree to which results measure characteristic that’s supposed to be measured 29. observer-expectancy effects —researchers desire for certain results, bias 30.
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