Asian American Studies 20A Lecture Notes Japanese and Koreans

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Asian American Studies 20A Lectures 10-14 Notes Japanese in the U.S. (188-1924) Beginnings of American imperialism in Japan o 1853: Matthew Perry in Edo Bay President Fillmore calling for trade Perry’s “Black Ships”; “gunboat diplomacy” o Kanagawa Treaty of 1854 Permanent U.S. consol in Shimoda Coaling rights for U.S. ships (loading of coal fuel) o Harris Treaty of 1858 Opening of trading ports Extraterritoriality for U.S. citizens Low import-exports duties Right for U.S. missionaries to operate o “unequal treaties” with other Western powers (Great Britain, France, Russia, Netherlands) Tokugawa Japan o Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1868) Shogun = military ruler o Foreign policy of isolation (sakoku) since 1639 Foreign trade with only China, Korea, Netherlands o Lagging the west in industrialization and military tech Meiji Restoration 1868 o Restoration of Emperor Matsuhito to throne o “meiji” = (Enlightened Rule) as his title o Feudal society changed to modernized/industrialized o Eradication of samurai class o Feudal states reclaimed by emperor; designated as prefectures (like states) o Intensive industrialization (railroads, ships, telegraphs, modern military) Impact on the citizenry: push factors o New tax system based on assessed value of land (vs. harvest yield) 1 st year: 90% tax revenue, 70% government revenue 1880s: 367,000 farmers lost lands due to inability to pay o Conscription 1873 new draft law o Primogeniture Oldest son inherited the entire state Second/younger sons move to towns to look for work Pull factors: labor opportunities in HI/U.S. o 1868: laborers went to Hawaii and U.S. So maltreated, Japanese government banned emigration until 1885 o 1885: recruitment by Robert Walker Irwin
Representative of Board of Immigration for Hawaii; foreign advisor to Mitsui Bussan Irwin Conversation: 29,000 laborers sent to Hawaii under oversight of Japanese/Hawaiian government Recruitment focused on Southwest Japan Japanese immigrants o 1885-1924 200,000 to Hawaii, 180,000 mainland o 1910 surpassed the number of Chinese o Better educated (average 8 years of education) o Not the poorest of the poor Japanese governmental social control o Strong Japanese central government o Determined to avoid problems by presenting Japan favorably o Review boards screened out the indigent (refused passports) o Encouraged immigration of women to lessen social problems 1905: 22% of Japanese in Hawaii and 7% Japanese in CA (more trafficking) Inherited white racial hostility against the Chinese o Unable to break into manufacturing industries o Continued U.S. demand for cheap labor; Japanese replaced Chinese (numbers declining under Exclusion) Employment o Many sectors pioneered by Chinese Railroad, mining, lumber, commercial fishing, canneries o Urban areas: Domestic services (houseboys), gardening, retail produce/flowers, shops/small businesses (tailors, import/curio shops) Agriculture o Plantation labor in Hawaii and migrant labor in CA o 1890s on mainland:

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