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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 10 Study Guide Psychology 101 CHAPTER 10 Pages 341-362 (1) What is some evidence concerning the usefulness of analogies in scientific thinking? According to Kevin Dunbar, biologists use the analogies regularly to help make sense of new findings and to generate new hypotheses. Most scientists used the analogies as they discussed their work, and the Gentners found that when they tested high school and college students who had little training in physical sciences with questions about electric circuits, the students thought of analogies for answering questions. (2) How are analogies useful in judicial and political reasoning? What distinguishes a useful analogy from a misleading one? In one fictional case, a man wins the lawsuit by using only a convincing analogy. Lawyers and politicians frequently use analogies to convince others of some claim they support. Using analogies in reasoning is misleading when the structural relationship/the core of argument breaks down. (3) How do the Miller analogy test and Ravens progressive Matrices test help assess a persons ability to perceive analogies? A persons score on the graduate entrance examination is a reasonably good predictor of how he/she will perform in graduate study or a job involving complex problems. It is imperative in such tests to see a relationship such as Plane is to Air as Boat is to water. Ravens test is often used by psychologists to measure fluid intelligence- the items are visual patterns. (4) What is inductive reasoning and why is it also called hypothesis construction? Why is reasoning by analogy inductive? 1 Chapter 10 Study Guide Psychology 101 Inductive reasoning is an attempt to infer some new principle from observations or facts that serve as clues. It is called hypothesis construction because the inferred preposition is at best an educated guess, not logical necessity. Reasoning by analogy is inductive because the evidence from which one induces a conclusion is ultimately a set of past experiences that are in some way very similar to one another or to the experience one is trying to explain or predict. (5) What kinds of false inferences are likely to result from availability bias? We rely too strongly on information that is readily available to us rather than on information less available- example of letter d- when people were asked whether it occurs more in 1 st place or in the third- they said first- even though it was third. (6) What are two ways by which researchers have demonstrated the confirmation bias?(6) What are two ways by which researchers have demonstrated the confirmation bias?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Fall '07 term at UVA.
- Fall '07