Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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1 Chapter 11 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 11 Focus Questions I) HOW INFANTS LEARN ABOUT THE PHYSICAL WORLD 1. How do infants reveal, in their behavior, that they are actively exploring their environments with their eyes and that they remember what they have seen? Preference for looking at novel items. Habituation, looking intently at first and then less and less, also takes place. They look at new stimuli more than old stimuli because they have more to learn from them. This preference for looking at new items also shows that babies have two abilities. First, they are able to perceive the difference between objects. Second, they are able to remember what they have seen before. 2. How does infants’ behavior reveal that they re motivated to control their environments and are emotionally involved in retaining control. Babies show more interest in objects that they are able to control than those they cannot control. Babies also showed expressions of anger when control over a device was taken away from them after they had mastered it. They showed anger even if a video recording came on as often as before, but under the control of an experimenter and not themselves. Thus, it was the loss of control and not the loss of opportunities to hear the recording that upset them. This shows that babies are emotionally involved in retaining control. There is also a functional element in maintaining control—humans are dependent on controlling their environment. 3. What is the evidence that infants’ examining of objects helps them to learn about objects’ unique properties and occurs whether or not adults encourage it? Infants will preferentially shake objects that rattle, look at objects with bright colors, and touch objects with different textures, showing that they learn about objects’ unique natures. When they come across an object similar to one that they are familiar with, they will at first try to manipulate it in the same way they did the previous similar object. If the object is different from anything encountered before, they will approach it afresh. In every culture, infants examine objects within their reach, whether they are encouraged to do so or not. For example, the Kung people do this.
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1 Chapter 11 Study Guide Psychology 101 4. What are three ways by which infants, beginning before 12 months of age, us their observations of adults’ behavior to guide their own explorations? In general, children use cues from adults to guide their behavior. Before 12 months, this is done in three ways. First, babies often mimic adults’ actions on objects, choosing to roll balls or pound things with balls. Second, babies engage in joint visual attention . This means that they will look where an adult’s eyes are directed, and will then periodically look back toward the adult to see whether attention has shifted onto a new object. This does not occur when the eyes are closed, showing that it is the direction of the eyes which is important, not the direction of the head. It is important to note that this could be important in
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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