Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Study Guide Psychology 101 Ch12...

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6 Chapter 12 Study Guide Psychology 101 Ch12 Social Development 1. What was Harlow’s procedure for studying attachment in infant monkeys, and what did he find? Harlow raised infant monkeys with two surrogate mothers, one wire and one cloth. In different experiments he alternated which mother the monkey would go to for milk. Harlow wanted to find if the monkeys would become attached to either of these as they would to a real mother and whether the milk nipple or soft cloth exterior was most effective in inducing attachment. He found that, no matter the case, the monkeys treated the cloth mother as their real mother. 2. According to Bowlby, what infant behaviors indicate strong attachment, and why would they come about in natural selection? He found that children exhibited distress when their mothers left them, exhibited pleasure when reunited with their mothers, and other such mother-dependent qualities. In evolutionary history, infants who followed their mothers, protested their mother’s departure, and were completely dependent on their mothers were more likely to survive to adulthood. 3. From an evolutionary perspective, why does attachment strengthen at about 6 to 8 months of age? At 6-8 months of age an infant is able to crawl around and explore the environment which allows them to exhibit social referencing. They begin to look to adults for cues of danger and safety. This slowly grows into an attachment. 4. How does the strange-situation test assess the security of attachment? What are some limitations of this measure? In this test, the mother moves into and out of an unfamiliar room, leaving the infant either with a stranger or alone. Observing how the infant reacts when the mother leaves and returns asses the level of attachment. The test fails to capture the harmonious caregiver- child interactions that occur in less stressful situations. 5. What early caregiver behaviors are predictive of secure attachment? How did Bowlby and Ainsworth interpret the correlations, and how else might they be interpreted? Caregivers who provide regular contact comfort, respond promptly and sensitively, and interacts with the infant in an emotionally synchronous manner. Bowlby and Ainsworth felt that the caregiver caused the attachment, while you may interpret it as some babies influence their caregivers behavior. 6. What experimental evidence supports Ainsworth and Bowlby’s theory that caregivers’ responsiveness and warmth promote secure attachment? Scientist van den Boom did an experiment where irritable babies were paired with mothers to see whether the babies easiness to comfort added a factor to their hypothesis. They found that the mothers were less attentive to the baby’s needs.
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6 Chapter 12 Study Guide Psychology 101 7. What evidence supports the theory that infant attachment affects subsequent emotional and social development, and what are the limitations of that evidence? Infants found to be securely attached are found to be more confident, better problem
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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Study Guide Psychology 101 Ch12...

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