Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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1 Chapter 13 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 13 1. In what sense are people natural psychologists? One of social psychology’s pioneers, Fritz Heider, pointed that human beings are natural psychologists – or naive psychologists. He contended that humans are naturally interested in assessing the personality characteristics and attitudes of other humans they encounter. From an evolutionary perspective, the drive to understand others has clear adaptive functions. It can help us predict their behavior and decide how to interact with them. 2. According to Kelley’s logical model, when should behavior be attributed to the person and when should it be attributed to the situation? We consider 3 questions in making an attribution: (1) Does this person regularly behave this way in this situation? If the answer is yes, we have grounds for attributing the behavior to some stable characteristic of the person or the situation. If the answer is no, it tells us little. (2) Do many other people behave this way in this situation? If the answer is yes, we have grounds for attributing the behavior more to the situation than to the person. If the answer is no, this may tells us something unique about the person. (3) Does this person behave this way in many other situations? If the answer is yes, we have grounds for making a relatively general claim about the personality of the observed person. If the answer is no, then any personality claim we made about the person is limited to the particular situation. 3. What evidence supports the existence of a person bias in attributions?
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1 Chapter 13 Study Guide Psychology 101 In one experiment, college students listened to a student who they were told was assigned to read a political assignment written by someone else. Even when the statement was written by the observers themselves, they could be sure that the reader has not chosen it himself, observers tend to rate the reader as politically liberal when the statement was liberal. 4. Why is the person bias often called the “fundamental attribution error”? In what conditions does the bias most often occur? That label is designed to signify the pervasiveness and strength of the bias to suggest that it underlies many other social-psychological phenomena. Conditions the bias often occur: (1) When people’s minds are occupied by other tasks (2) People are tired (3) When making their judgments very soon after observing the action (4) If it is in the experiment, research subjects are likely to exhibit the person bias than those who are asked to explain the observed behavior 5. What are 2 hypotheses as to why people commonly attribute their own behavior to the situation and others’ behavior to personality? What evidence support each hypothesis? One possible explanation is that it has to do with the degree to which we
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Fall '07 term at UVA.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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