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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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5 Chapter 15 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 15 Personality refers to a person’s general style of interacting with the world, especially with other people 1. What is a trait, and how do traits differ from states? What does it mean to say that a trait is a dimension rather than an all-or-none characteristic? a. A trait can be defined as a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way. They are considered to be a part of the person, not the environment (i.e. aggressiveness or kindness). Traits are enduring attributes. b. Traits are not all-or-none, but are dimensions (continuous, measurable characteristics) along which people differ by degree 2. Why is a trait considered to be a description rather than an explanation of behavior? a. The trait is inferred from behavior. It would be meaningless to say that someone argues a lot because he is highly aggressive. That would be the same as saying, “They argues a lot because he argues a lot.” 3. How is factor analysis used to identify trait dimensions that are not redundant with one another? a. (Factor analysis is a method of analyzing patterns of correlations in order to extract mathematically defined factors , which underlie and help make sense of those patterns.) A matrix of correlation coefficients is used to show the correlation for every possible pair in a group of adjectives. Then, factor extraction is used to identify mathematical factors, which best account for the observed pattern of correlations. The factors are labeled. We are then able to tell if they are efficient trait dimensions by whether or not they are redundant with another trait. 4. How did Cattell develop his trait theory? a. He condensed Allport’s 18,000 adjectives describing personality down to 170 and developed questionnaires aimed at assessing those traits in people. He then factor-analyzed the results. He identified 16 different trait dimensions and produced the 16 PF Questionnaire to measure them. 5. Why is the five-factor model of personality generally preferred over Cattell’s trait theory today? a. Because Cattell’s is overly-complex and contains redundant factors. The five-factor model reduced these traits to neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 6. How are the Big Five traits and their facets measured in individuals? a. The NEO Personal Inventory is used. A person rates 240 statements on a 5-point scale. Each statement is designed to assess one facet of one of the 5 major traits. 7. What is the evidence that personality is relatively stable throughout adulthood?
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5 Chapter 15 Study Guide Psychology 101 a. People fill out questionnaires, or are evaluated by close friends/family members, at widely separated times in their lives. Correlation coefficients b/w ages typically range from .5 to .7 (which is substantial). 8.
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Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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