Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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4 Chapter 16 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter 16 Focus Questions 1. How is the concept of mental disorder defined by the American Psychiatric Association ? What ambiguities lie in that definition? Mental disorders are similar to medical diseases, with symptoms and syndromes. A mental disorder must have an internal source, be impairing, and involuntary. The definition is ambiguous because one cannot define how impairing a disorder must be. 2. What does reliability mean with reference to a diagnostic system, and how did the developers of the DSM strive to increase reliability? The extent to which different diagnosticians all trained in the system reach the same conclusion. The DSM was published to set a standard for labeling and diagnosing disorders. 3. How does validity differ from reliability? How can the validity of the DSM be improved through further research and revisions? Validity is an index of the extent to which the categories it identifies are clinically meaningful. Validity can be improved through research by discovering new means for diagnosis or new subcategories. 4. What are some negative consequences of labeling a person as mentally disordered? What is recommended as a partial solution? Labeling a person can blind the clinician or harm the esteem of the patient and interfere with his ability to cope with his environment. A solution is to label the diagnosis with the disorder, not the person. 5. How do taijin kyofusho and eating disorders illustrate the role of culture in the mental disorders that people develop? Taijin Kyofusho is the fear of offending others and eating disorders are usually caused by cultural demand to be slim. Both disorders depend on cultural expectations-the role of modesty in Asian cultures and the demand to be slim in Western cultures. 6. How does the example of homosexuality illustrate the role of culture in determining what is or is not a disorder? During the early 1900’s, homosexuality was looked down upon by society and thus was considered a mental disorder, despite it not being one. 7. How is ADHD identified, explained, and treated? How do critics of the high rates of diagnosis of ADHD explain those high rates? ADHD is identified in school difficulties. It is explained as deficits in the prefrontal lobes of the cortex, which focus on attention. ADHD is usually treated with Ritalin. Critics claim that ADHD diagnosis has made it hard to participate in free play, as is necessary in all mammals. 8.
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Fall '07 term at UVA.

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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Study Guide Psychology 101 Chapter...

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