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Psychology Test 1 Study

Psychology Test 1 Study - Psychology Exam 1 Chapter 1...

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12/2/07 Psychology Exam 1 Chapter 1 Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mind. The word comes from the greek psyche, which translates as “soul” or “breath,” and logos, which means the study r investigation of something. Mind- the contents and processes of subjective experience: sensations, thoughts, and emotions. Behavior- observable actions such as moving about, talking, gesturing, and so on; behaviors can also refer to the activities of cells to thoughts and feelings. Clinical Psychologists- psychologists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems. Psychiatrists- medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems. Applied Psychologists- psychologists who extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical problems in the world. School psychologists- work with students in primary and secondary schools to help them perform well academically and socially Industrial/organizational psychologist- employed in industry to help improve morale, train new recruits, or help manager establish effective lines of communication with their employees. Human factors psychologist- play a key role in the design and engineering of new products. Research Psychologists- psychologists who try to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind. Biospsychologists- seek to understand how biological or genetic factors influence and determine behavior Personality psychologists- concerned with the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across situations, and also how people differ Developmental psychologists- study how behavior and internal mental processes change over the course of a lifespan. Social psychologists- interested in how people think about, influence, and relate to each other. Empiricism- the idea that knowledge comes directly from experience.
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Rene Descartes- argued that the mind and body are separate: The physical body, he claimed, cannot think, nor is it possible to explain thinking by appealing to physical matter. He believed the mind controlled the actions of a mechanical body through the pineal gland, a small structure at the bas of the brain First introduce the concept of reflex; they are automatic, involuntary reactions of the body to events in the environment Nowadays, psychologist reject the separation of mind and body and assume there one and the same. Nativism- the idea that some knowledge is innate, or present at birth. Immanuel Kant- proposed that humans are born with a certain mental “structure” that determines how they perceive the world. He argued that people are born with a natural tendency to see things in terms of cause and effect and to interpret the world in terms of space and time.
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