Exam 3 Essays

Exam 3 Essays - CHAPTER TEN 1. Why do so many people blame...

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CHAPTER TEN 1. Why do so many people blame victims of tragedy or crime for having brought their misfortunes on themselves? (pg 338-339) In order to make sense out of senseless events or feel safe during threatening times, many people need to believe that the world is fair and justice is served. They use the just-world hypothesis to fulfill this need. It is the idea that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded. Many times, this hypothesis leads to blaming the victim of a crime and thinking that he or she must have done something to deserve what happened. For example, sometimes a rape victim is blamed of dressing too provocatively or an innocent bystander who is shot because of being in the way. 2. What is the meaning of the “Big Lie,” and why does it work so well? (pg 342) The “Big Lie” refers to the idea that if something is repeated often enough, even the most blatant lie, eventually the public will believe it. The Nazis named this technique. Its formal name is the validity effect, and it works due to the familiarity effect, or the tendency of people to feel more positive toward an idea that they have seen over and over. 3. Why do people in groups often go along with the majority even when the majority is dead wrong? (pg 345) Under some conditions, even if the majority is completely wrong, people will still go along with the group. An extreme form of this is called groupthink. Groupthink is when the overall groups need for agreement overwhelms its need to make the best and wisest decision. 4. In an emergency, why are you more likely to get help when there are fewer people around? Name and describe this phenomenon. (pg 346-347) One is most likely to get help in an emergency if there are only a few people around. When the responsibility for an outcome is spread among many people, each individual’s personal sense of responsibility is reduced. This is called diffusion of responsibility. In this way, bystander apathy occurs. Everyone thinks that someone else is going to come to the rescue, but in reality no one does anything. 5. Name and describe the four different ways that people balance their ethnic identity and their membership in the larger culture? (pg 350-351) An ethnic identity is one’s personal identification with one’s own culture. Acculturation is the process by which members of minority groups come to identify with mainstream culture. Several different results arise when people are forced to balance their ethnic identity and membership in a larger culture. Bicultural people have strong ties to both their ethnicity and to the mainstream
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This essay was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course PSYC 181 taught by Professor Kellerplan during the Fall '07 term at UNL.

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Exam 3 Essays - CHAPTER TEN 1. Why do so many people blame...

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