Notes 2 - ANCIENT ROME Settled by Indo-Europeans Etruscans...

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ANCIENT ROME Settled by Indo-Europeans Etruscans dominated early Italy ETRUSCANS Controlled much of Central Italy by 600 BCE Strong monarchies Strong nobility Effective military organization o Cavalry, chariots Polytheistic religion Believed in eternal afterlife Women participated in public life Etruscans conquered Rome in 625 BCE BEGINNINGS OF ROMAN POLITICAL CULTURE/SOCIETY Imperium-executive powers Patricians- father of the state- Senate Plebeians- commoners FOUNDING OF THE REPUBLIC Overthrew Etruscans king in 509 BCE Consuls- 2 men responsible for everyday operations, 1 year terms Senate Dictator- elected for 6 months ONLY during war Popular assembly Foundations of the Republic system STRUGGLE OF THE ORDERS Plebian right to organize: Concilium Plebis Tribunes Plebiscites- laws only for Plebian community Code of 12 tables- rules set for trials and family law Plebian success due to military and merchant roles DEMOCRATIC REFORM 2 consuls----1-plebian 1-patrician 300 senators 150-plebian 150-patrician 10 tribunes--plebeians Citizen assembly (adult male citizens) CONQUEST OF ITALY By 270 BCE, most city-states had been conquered by Rome Allowed local self-government
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Did not demand tribute or taxes Treated conquered opponents fairly PUNIC WARS Rome vs. Carthage Started on Island of Sicily Rome won the first Punic War Rome annexed Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia 2 nd Punic War Rome won Rome started total domination of Carthage Salt poured on Carthage land CONSEQUENCES OF EXPANSION Fewer, smaller farmers and landowners Aristocracy owned larger and larger estates: latifundia Increasingly worked by slaves Creates landless poor who move to Rome REFORMS OF THE GRACCHI Tiberius-163-131 BCE Gaius-153-121 BCE Land reform, poor relief Both killed by factions of senators in order to stop movement Significant because: o Initial success showed discontent o Murders indicated that senators did not care for the people RISE OF THE GENERALS Gaius Marius o New model army from the landless poor o Loyalty to the Generals, not the state o Personal armies Pompey-106-48 BCE o Army general o Repealed many of Sulla’s laws, attempted to re-assert Tribal Assembly o Triumvirate with Crassus and Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar-100-44 BCE: Dictator for Life o March 15 th - stabbed to death o Huge military prowess o Marc Antoni-east Octavian-west o Marc Antoni fell in love with Cleopatra o Octavian took empire from Marc Antoni Octavian Augustus-63 BCE-14 CE: The Principate o Controlled army on the frontier
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o Focused on morality “Roman virtues” o Revived religious practices o Civil services o Roman empire extended to North Africa, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Armenia Hadrian o Built protective walls from Germanic invaders PAX ROMANA--30 BCE-180 CE 100 million inhabitants Free trade zone on Mediterranean Sea
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Notes 2 - ANCIENT ROME Settled by Indo-Europeans Etruscans...

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