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13th Amendment:abolish slavery in all US territory pass in 1865. All states had to ratify amendment to rejoin the unionAmerican Colonization Society: members planned to purchase & relocate slaves & free blacks to Afr or Caribbean. Supporters (Jefferson, James Madi & Monroe, Henry Clay). Founded Liberia& began a settlement for blacks who were willing to go & resettled around 12,000 by 1860. aimed to strengthen slavery by ridding N & S of blacks & others thought would improve black’s conditions. Some blacks support but black abolitionists no likeAndrew Jackson:1stdemo pres, controversial pres in history. Hated banks defunded 2ndnatnl bank & ended fed bank & somewhat caused panic of 1837. General in war of 1812.Andrew Johnson:is put into office after Lincoln’s death. In favor of the easy terms for the states to rejoin union. As pres he pardoned former confeds & re-est.state gvnts in S. Angelina and Sarah Grimke:born in SC to slave owning family. became quak inpenn when grow up & be abolitionists, form Women Anti-Slavery Society publish influential book “Ameri slavery as it is” info from S newspaper & legal codes & martial actual evidence on how slaves recruited in S to introduce to N how brutal slavery is as a way of undermining it on Christian grounds. make ppl think next step was rights for women & they later leaders for women’s rightsAppomattox Court House: site of lee’s surrender to Grant marking the end of civil war on 4/9. grant treated rival respectfully & paroled defeated troops allowingcavalrymen to keep horses. a few days following Licoln gets assassinatedBenjamin Butler:1861, makes decision on field say if any slave makes it to his army’s line during battle then slave will become a contraband of war. Recognizesthe slaves as property & slaves will never return to southern masters. Treats slaves as property, anything that they can seize from confederate. US congressmakes the confiscation actBlack Codes: laws 2 design 2 limit pol rights of freed men. Compel former slaves 2 carry passes, observe a curfew, live in housing provide by a landowner. established joint committee to study a new direction for reconstructionCharles Grandison Finney:lawyer turned Presbyterian minister conduct revivals in town (Utica) along erie canal & stress indiv respons. Say how Christians weren’t doomed by org sin, anyone can achieve salvation. Achieve greatest success in “burned-over district” (places that experienced changes in transp & indus – region’s intense flames of evangelicalism) rapid change raise fears of social disorder inspiring reform associationsCharles Sumner:delivered a speech attacking slavery, turns to college in SC which accuses him personally that has taken harlem in countryCommunication Revolution:ppl travel more & easier 2 ship info more widespread. 1830s, mechanized steam presses r replace old 1s can press lgr # of newspapers & books. Smaller towns are now home 2 daily newspaper. Ppl have more access to info & lit rates are going up. ez 2 ship info 2 telegraph, can