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TOWARD A NEW WORLD VIEW: 15 th -18 th CENTURIES Columbian Exchange--global diffusion of plants, animals and diseases between old world to new world Cantino World Map Scientific Revolution BIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF 1492: THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE Corn, potatoes from Americas lead to population boom in Europe Horses from Europe to Americas MICROBIAL EXCHANGE Europe Americas o Smallpox o Measles o Diphtheria o Influenza o Whooping Cough America Europe o Syphilis POPULATION DECLINE 1519---25.2 million 1532---16.8 million 1622---1 million SLAVE EXPERIENCE 2/3 slaves are male, 1/3 female Cultural impact CANTINO WORLD MAP (LISBON, 1502) First map to show America WORLD MAP, 1532 World starting to take shape THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Galileo Galilei--Italy--Telescope Francis Bacon--England--Use of reason Isaac Newton--England--gravity IMPLICATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Workings of universe explained by natural causes Humans gain tremendous power to determine their world= confidence + optimism Church/clergy no longer have a monopoly on knowledge
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Reason and rationality used to discover natural order of universe can be applied to society= “Enlightenment” SECOND TREATISE OF GOVERNMENT John Locke Government must provide for citizens otherwise citizens must overthrow LITERACY Still slow process Large number of population still illiterate CHALLENGES TO ABSOLUTISM: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815) SALONS AND THE SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT Salons are living rooms to read and review writings VOLTAIRE Satirist Philosophical letters Never endorses one type of government THIRD ESTATE Division of classes out of 28,000,000 o 1 st Estate--clergy--130,000 o 2 nd Estate--noble--300,000 o 3 rd Estate--everyone else--27,500,000 Each estate gets one vote in Estates General--usually ending up 2 to 1 KING LOUIS XVI
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