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K731 F2021 Week 02- post.pptx - K731: Project Management...

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Unformatted text preview: K731: Project Management Week 2- Org Structure & Culture, Project Teams Dr. Nicole Wagner [email protected] Agenda Housekeeping Organizational Structure & Culture Distribute Case Memo 1: Beijing EAPS Project Teams Distribute Term Project Document Housekeeping Notes on class technology MS Teams Private channel created for each group in the class Use “@” to tag posts you want specific people to see, @general for all Will be our backup meeting place in case of Zoom outage Zoom for class For engagement feel free to use chat, raise hand, unmute Organizational Structure & Culture Project vs. Non-Project Firms Project firm: Income Statement by project Examples? Non-project firm: Income Statement by line activity/function Examples? Where is it easier to be a project manager? Project vs. Non-Project Firms Relative Influence Decision-making influence Project Influence in Decision-Making Dual Influence Functional Influence In Decision-Making Non-Project Firm Project Firm PM Organizational Structures There are various configurations in which people can be organized to work on projects. The most common are: 1. Functional/ Traditional/ Classical 2. Dedicated Teams/ Projectized/ Autonomous Teams 3. Matrix (weak, balanced, strong) Which is the best structure? Functional Structure Projects are managed within the existing functional hierarchy of the organization Appropriate when? • • • • • • • • Pros: Clear and established structure Flexibility in use of staf In-depth expertise, functional pools of resources Easy post-project transition Cons: Lack of focus on project Poor integration across functions, functional silos Slow communication Lack of ownership Functional Structure Signs that the functional structure is inadequate for managing projects: Some aspect of project success is slipping Lack of accountability Imbalance between functions Restructuring the Functional Structure Progression of work integration Eforts without restructure Integration positions Project Leader Task Force Project Manager Restructuring the Functional Structure Departmental Project Management Restructuring the Functional Structure Dedicated Teams Teams operate as separate units, PM is usually FT, pulls together a group of specialists to work on the project. Appropriate when? • • • • • • • • Pros: Clear and simple structure Fast pace of work from FT team, dedicated focus Cohesive team develops Cross function integration Cons: Expensive due to FT membership Conflict between team and organization Limited expertise, lack of pool Difficult post-project transition Dedicated Teams Matrix Structure Organizational leadership is shared by project and functional managers Appropriate when? • • • • • • • • Pros: Efficient resource utilization Strong project focus Functional pools of resources Easy post-project transition Cons: Dysfunctional conflict potential Infighting over shared resources Stressful, two lines of reporting Slow communication Matrix Structure Variations in Matrix Strength of Matrix Type of Authorit y Relative strength of PM authority Weak Balanced Strong Project PM PM PM Administratio n FM PM & FM PM Technical FM PM & FM PM Project: planning, team coordination, communication, priority setting, etc. Administration: team selection & scheduling, performance review, etc. Technical: how the work gets done (subject matter expertise) Team Member Perspective How does PM organizational structure impact the concerns of staf (team members)? Professional development/ career growth Post-project transition Team cohesiveness ( efectiveness) Reporting relationships Division of duties Functional vs. Dedicated Teams vs. Matrix HR Perspective Staffing complexities in project environment Staffing levels are more variable Performance evaluation is more complex Wage and salary grades are more difficult to maintain in a matrix Training and development are more complex Morale problems are potentially greater Selecting Structure In practice, companies often have more than one project organization form in place at one time (i.e. dedicated teams for R&D, functional elsewhere) Organizational Culture Interaction with structure? Importance for project manager? Case Memo 1: Beijing EAPS Consulting Inc. Assignment document on Avenue Project Teams The Project Team A project team is: a group of individuals working interdependently to accomplish the project objective. Teamwork is: the cooperative efort by members of a team to accomplish a common goal. Efective teamwork project success How can we develop efective teams? High-Performing Teams Characteristics of high-performing teams Clear understanding of the project objective Capitalize on individual skills and talents Clear expectations of each person’s role and responsibilities Results orientation, high standards High degree of cooperation and collaboration High level of trust High-Performing Teams • • • • • • High need for achievement Understanding/acceptance of responsibility Commitment to self-directed behavior Put project needs before their own needs Willingness to consider alternative views Personal commitment to project. Project Team Acquisition Acquiring the project team Often one of the first things a PM does on a project May choose, may be assigned, may negotiate Considerations for HR needs? Sources of team members? Project Team Acquisition Constructive Team Roles Destructive Team Roles Initiators Aggressors Information seekers Blockers Information givers Withdrawers Encouragers Recognition seekers Clarifiers Topic jumpers Harmonizers Dominators Summarizers Devil’s advocate (constructive to an extent) Gate keepers Project Team Development Characteristics: • • • • Get acquainted Positive expectations Little work accomplished Lots of questions PM Role: • Project Team Development Characteristics: • • • • • Work begins Expectations not met Increasing dissatisfaction with dependence Testing limits Conflict emerges PM Role: • Project Team Development Characteristics: • • • • Relationships settle, conflicts resolve Acceptance of operating environment Empowerment Cohesion of team PM Role: • Project Team Development Characteristics: • • • • Commitment to objective High level of performance Open communication Collaboration and support of members PM Role: • Project Team Development What impacts a teams’ ability to move quickly to the performing stage? Project Team Development - Get to know the team - What skills and knowledge does everyone bring? - What strengths and weaknesses may support or hinder team work? Project Team Development Project Team Management Keeping tabs on what is happening Assessing human performance in comparison with plans Taking action to get team back (or keep it) on track Motivating individuals & team as a whole Improving continually methods used Improving continually participants’ capability & satisfaction Project Team Management Managing Conflict Sources of Conflict? Is Conflict a bad thing? Managing Conflict Styles of Handling Conflict 1. Forcing/ Competing 2. Withdrawing/ Avoiding 3. Smoothing/ Accommodating 4. Compromising 5. Collaborating/ Problem Solving “Do it my way!” “Let’s deal with this issue next week” “Let’s do it your way” “Let’s do a little of what you both suggest” “Let’s see what everyone thinks and try to reach a consensus” Managing Conflict Conflict Resolution Process: 1. Understand the conflict. 2. Agree on conflict-resolution goals. 3. Identify causes of conflict. 4. Identify potential solutions for conflict. 5. Pick desired conflict solution. 6. Implement chosen solution. Valuing Team Diversity Teams are often diverse in many ways For example? Job function and/or level, location Age, gender, appearance, health, family status Ethnicity, ancestry, culture, religion Diversity creates diferences in? Experiences/ background Skills/ knowledge/ approaches Values/ preferences Needs/ concerns/ priorities Importance? Valuing Team Diversity Acknowledge, understand, and value diferences Create a work environment that recognizes, respects, and harnesses diferences Accomplish a shared goal Diferences can create barriers to team performance Can become a serious impediment, if not managed properly Under good management, diversity can lead to more creative, faster results, and higher-quality problem solving and decision making an asset Valuing Team Diversity How can the PM encourage the valuing of diversity? Virtual Teams Now more common than ever Biggest challenges? Establishing trust & developing efective patterns of communication How can you build trust & develop efective communication patterns in your class groups? Term Project AssignmentTeam Contract Group Discussion Let’s take some time for you to have a Team Kick-of Meeting Introduce yourselves and relevant background What are each of your strengths and weaknesses (related to the program/ course/ term project/ team work in general, etc) Discuss how you will work together Meetings? Communication? Team building? What roles will everyone play within the group toward the completion of the assignment? Can you align with strengths and weaknesses? What are your expectations for your group? Level of efort? Engagement expected? Conflict resolution? Team Contract Requirements ...
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