hydro tech notes test 2 - Scientific Norms o o o o The...

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Scientific Norms o The rules of expected behavior of the institution of science o CUDOS C ommunism (Communalism)- scientific knowledge belongs to everyone Examples: Make interdisciplinary connections Explore implications and consequences Exceptions: government and large industries may not publish U niversalism - scientific statements should be judged of their own merits (scientific); there should be no personal bias Examples: Develop insight into egocentricity or sociocentricity Develop intellectual good faith or integrity D isinterestedness - NOT uninterested; scientist is not out for personal gain Examples: Explore thought underlying feelings and feelings underlying thoughts Recognize contradictions O riginality - new areas of research, new insights, new techniques Examples: Compare analogous situations: transfer insights to new contexts Develop intellectual courage S kepticism - judge scientific work carefully and critically, institutionalized in science as peer review Examples: Evaluate the credibility of sources of information Compare and contrast ideals with actual practice o Community of Scientists Invisible colleges - transcend borders Communication - papers are primary medium Can also be conferences, presentations, lectures that provide feedback before publishing Peer review - publications and grants Rewards - publications in prestigious journals and grants from prestigious funding agencies, honors and awards, work is cited in other publications o Becoming a Scientist Undergraduate study - learn general material from books, tools, communication skills, well-rounded education Graduate school - study "frontier" research, more specialized, enter community by attending conferences and publishing results of research Doctoral dissertation - original contribution to scientific knowledge, work independently buy under guidance
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Post-doctoral fellows - one or more years of conducting research with senior scientist University employed
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