Mar individ ecology - Ecological Scales Individual Ecology...

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Ecological Scales Individual Ecology o Functional morphology How does an organism use its body shape, etc. to survive in its environment? Feeding mechanisms, locomotion, etc. o Physiological ecology (John Lawrence, Jose Torres) Assimilation, respiration, growth, reproduction, primary production Secondary compounds produced during respiration…Why? Increases fitness for evolution? Happens in plants: garbage or deter consumers? Most experiments are done in labs Biggest problem is translating results to real-world situations o Biomechanics (Vogel, Denny) Life in moving fluids How biology is affected by the physical processes Population Biology o Distribution and abundance Spatial patterns, mark and recapture o Reproduction and mortality Age/stage structured, density dependence o Immigration and emigration Meta-population, source-sink, recruitment limitation or supply- side dynamics Community Ecology o Competition and predation o Succession and disturbance o Species richness and similarity (biodiversity) o Island biogeography Ecosystem Ecology o Energy flow Carbon cycling, inputs, and outputs o Nutrient cycling N and P cycles Habitat Scales The idea of landscapes is becoming more popular o Can range from 1 mm (marine snow) to kilometers or even ocean basins o The questions that are asked depend on the scale Micro-Scale Ecology
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o How do organisms influence the formation of marine snow? o Questions centered around small organisms can then be scaled up to macro-scale questions How snow affects the deep sea Landscape (Macro-) Scale Ecology o Example: Hydrothermal vents tend to be widely spaced and randomly placed How do the same species end up in these communities? Whale falls share 10 species in common with hydrothermal vents and 20 species in common with cold seeps Are the species "whale hopping?" Study done by Smith Ecology of the Individual Sub-disciplines: Physiological Ecology Functional morphology Example: allometry Study feeding mechanisms and locomotion Study structural formations and their consequences for the individual Plant/animal physiology Example: metabolites Ecophysiology or comparative physiology Comparing groups together Range of energy budgets and how energy is used Response to stressors Biomechanics Example: boundary flow Combination of physics and biology How organisms respond to and use the actual physical environment Example: feeding currents set up by copepods=fluid mechanics Molecular biology Example: plasticity Genetic basis for evolutionary adaptations Proximal Goal : engineering point of view of how individuals function day to day Can be framed in an evolutionary sense Ultimate Goal : how attributes link together to help individuals survive in population, community, and ecosystem
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Behavioral Ecology Evolutionary and ecological adaptations in behavior Example: mating systems Functional Morphology
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Mar individ ecology - Ecological Scales Individual Ecology...

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