weekly 2 - Valerie Henderson Weekly #2 Chapter 3: African...

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Valerie Henderson Weekly #2 Chapter 3: African Exodus 1. Ice Age Background (table pg. 69) a)Pleistocene began 1.8 mya after intensification of glaciation worldwide (2.5 mya) b)5 or 6 species of hominis at beginning of Ice Age (1.6 mya) c)(730 kya) -Matuyama / Bruhnes boundary= beginning of constant climatic change for remainder of ice age (ice age came about slowly, but when it stated ending it went fast) d)At least 9 glacial episodes (major one 525 kya: ice as far south as Seattle) e)(180kya-128kya)-Intense cold cycle= time of H.sapien evolution in Africa f)(100kya-15kya)- H.sapiens spread throughout the Old World and into the Americas 2. Homo Ergaster in Africa a)1.9 mya-600kya Successor to h.habilis evolve tropical Africa (best/longest fossil record fm Africa) b)1 mya- h.ergastor and h.erectus only survivor of 5 or 6 species that started at the beginning of the Ice Age c)(1.8mya-600kya)-H.ergastor-eastern Africa, powerfully built, massive eyebrow ridges, large face, long, low skull, chinless, short arms/long legs, lived entirely on ground, barrel-like chests, narrower hips, more efficient muscles for walking/running, narrower pelvis reduced brain growth b4 birth from Lake Turkana region, north Kenya -very morphologically close to H.erectus which date (1mya & earlier) -neck down=bones modern looking, skull/jawbone=more primitive -brain capacity about 700-800 cc only 130cc>homo habilis -First human to use fire, fashion more elaborate tools and leave Africa 3. Humans Radiate out of Africa a)appeared on Savanna 1.9 mya and southeast Asian rainforest 1.8 mya b)2 mya- hominins were adjusting to cyclical alterations among savanna, forest and desert as Ice Age began, they migrated with changing vegetation zone, carnivore/plants 4. Homo erectus in Eurpoe and Asia a)male and female H.erectus skulls recently discovered at dmanisi in Georgia with
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weekly 2 - Valerie Henderson Weekly #2 Chapter 3: African...

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