weekly 5 - Valerie Henderson 10/11/07 Chapter 6: The...

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Valerie Henderson 10/11/07 Chapter 6: The Earliest Farmers 1.Domesticating Animals : implies genetic selection emphasizing special features of use to domesticator. 3 vital elements-constraining the movement target pop., regulating breeding and controlling their feeding to shape future generations. End of ice age-sw Asia concentrating on gazelles/other steppe animals, wild sheep/goats intensively hunted on s. shores Caspian Se, high social animals-goats-most easily domesticated b/c follow lead of dominant herd member/move together/tolerate feeding/breeding confined space, cattle harder to domesticate-came from sw Asia/Sahara after 7000BC, hunters often fed off same herd long time sometimes deliberately sparing young keep food source, develop several areas sw Asia @ same time about 9500BC, sea animals resist domestication b/c lives spent out of range of human influence 2.Domesticating Wheat/Barley : in wild-grains occur dense strands/harvested tapping stem w/ hands/gathering seeds as fall, called rachis, first cultivavted wheat/barley wild brittle-rachised large domesticated mutants in first 2-5 yrs. Selection for semitough forms unconscious process early on maybe helped by invention sickle/uprooting plants earliest evidence-Syria 10,000BC, figs Jordan Valley early as 9400BC 3.Sw Asia Farmers (10,000-5,000BC) : end ice age < few thousand foragers e.Mediterranean coast/Jordan/Euphrates Valleys w/in 2000yrs pop tens of thousands b/c village/farming life, climate cooler/wetter than today, richer plant/animal species, 10,000 BC most in Levant/Zagros mtns-Iran/foothills, Euphrates Valley-11,500BC founded small 300-400 village settlement cramped pit dwellings w/ reed roofs next 1,500yrs warmer/damp climate wild cereal grasses abundant lived spring migrations Persian gazelle fr south large community more elaborate social organization, as climate dried went from nuts to wild cereal grasses 10,200BC drought abandoned went smaller groups 9700BC-new village on mound 1 st hunted gazelle 9000BC-switched herding goats/sheep growing einkorn/pulses 30 acres close-knit community rectangle 1-story mud-brick house
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course ANTH 151 taught by Professor Sheppard during the Fall '07 term at Hawaii.

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weekly 5 - Valerie Henderson 10/11/07 Chapter 6: The...

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