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weekly 6 - Valerie Henderson Weekly#4 Chapter 5 The Origins...

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Valerie Henderson Weekly#4 10/4/07 Chapter 5: The Origins of Food Production 1. until last 12,000 years (99% human existence), humans were hunter-gatherers -Agricultural Revolution resulted from develop village farming then thousand yr later an Urban Revolution=beginnings cities, writing, metallurgy, and literary civilization 2. The Holocene (after 10,000BC): 15 kya ice sheets retreat and postglacial time, Holocene began, sea levels rose-separate Alaska/Siberia, Britain became island, w/cent Europe/N.America climatic/vegetational transform, rainfall Sahara changed =large/shallow lakes/short grasslands late 6000BC hunter-gatherers flourish in Sahara, SW Asia warmer immigration new plant species highland areas, wild wheat / barley staple h-g in Euphrates, Mexico-rising temp=rich forest cacti/legume trees to mtn valleys these included possibly ancestor of maize that would become staple of N.American life 3. Changes in Hunter-Gatherer Societies : late ice age environments couldn’t support more than sparse human pop. Density/after 10,000BC no longer possible to solve subsistence problem by moving/began exploiting wider range food resources w/ > efficiency to avert starvation/protect themselves during food shortages, Americas- settled stone-age gatherers during or after ice-age by 11,000BC big game extinct, develop more intensive/specialized ways exploiting local environments (west coast, Peruvian coast, fertile river valleys southern Midwest/southeast U.S.) became more sedentary, specialized tech hunting, foraging, fishing, develop form of social ranking -koster (Illinois river valley) 7500BC-AD1200: Paleo-Indian hunters camped edge valley, 6500BC founded base camp, extended family group (25 people) returned repeatedly, 5600-5000BC substantial settlements of permanent mud/brush houses occupied most year, summer/spring thousands of fish/hickory nuts, hunt deer, after 2500 pop rose/they had to find new food sources-planting wild native grasses 4. Social Complexity among Hunter-Gatherers: most common areas where fish abundant (Europe, Peru, N.America) high pop density, lived sedentary/large base
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