weekly 7 - Valerie Henderson 10/15/07 Weekly #6 Chapters...

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Valerie Henderson 10/15/07 Weekly #6 Chapters 7/8: Chiefs and Chiefdoms/State-Organized Societies 1.Reciprocity and “Big Men” : family-closer together, more important, depend each other -trade/exchange-complicated networks link village w/ village, household w/ household -complex ag socities w/ kin leaders, volatile often shamans in late pre-historic Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Polynesia, parts N.America, couldn’t control big areas 2.Chiefs and Navigators in the Pacific (2000BC-modern) : 2 areas not colonized - Antarctica not til 18 th cent -islands Melanesia/Polynesia after 2000BC connected yam and taro cultivation, sailed double-hulled canoes(Lapita Culture) trade networks Malaysia to coastal New Guinea inter-island trips daily, close-knit group, knowledge passed orally -Tahiti: hierarchy warlike chiefs/nobles, descendants canoe cews, control/redistribute wealth/food, intense comp/warfare, communal ownership land 3.The American Southwest (300BC-modern) : maize 1 st in sw during higher rainfall btw 2000-1500Bc (fm tree ring dating-dendrochronolgy: count for age, space btwn shows how climate was), spread rapidly, especially with beans after 500BC, beans return nitrogen soil making > fertile longer, soil > dry sw, select wet soils careful near canyon mouths/diverted water streams/springs, maize not dramatic revolution in sw life -Hokoham, Mogollon, and Ancestral Pueblo : 300BC > productive domestic crops > dependence farming -hokoham: lower Arizona, desert farmer, grew maize/beans/cotton, where could, practice irrigate fm flowing streams, or cultivated floodplains/caught runoff w/ dams/terraces, lived/trade activity center Snaketown(large settlement/ceremonial center Gila River) trade w/ sw/Pacific Coast/Mexico, obtain tropical bird feathers/copper fm south after 1500, vanished, important because cultural heirs, O’odham, live today -Mogollon: >highland cultural tradition, New Mexico 300BC-btwn 850-1150, relied direct rainfall/use little irrigation, small villages-pit dwellings w/ timber frames/mat or
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weekly 7 - Valerie Henderson 10/15/07 Weekly #6 Chapters...

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